Reshaping Spaces and Relations: Urban Gardening in a Time of Crisis


Abstract


This article studies urban gardening as a form of social resilience. It analyses its role and impact on society in a context of social and financial crisis through the lens of the debate about the commons on the basis of three case studies conducted in Brussels in 2013. The study connects the specificities of the current social and economic context with the new wave of urban gardening from a people-centred perspective. Both the motivations and the outcomes of this form of activism are analysed and led to the conclusion that being involved in urban gardening represents not only a way to cope with economic and social threats but also a tool to rebuild and reshape social bonds. The paper aims to contribute to the current debate about the commons, intended as a form of resilience and a tool of social change rather than a simple alternative economic model. It aims to do so through the analysis of urban gardening practices, which are more commonly studied from the perspective of urban agriculture, food production, access to land and urbanism.

Keywords: Commons; Urban spaces; Gardens; Social relations; Brussels

References


Barbato M., Berdini P., Colosimo C., Corradini P., Di Pietro G., Gallo S., Gesualdi F., Gualtieri V., Marella M.R., Mattei U., Pascali F., Settis B., Soscia D., Stampacchia M., Veneziano D., Viale G. (2013) Rebelpainting, Beni Comuni e Spazi Sociali: una creazione collettiva, Pisa:!Rebeldia edizioni.

Bollier D, Helfrich S, (ed.) (2012), The Wealth of the Commons: A World Beyond Market and State, Amherst (MA): Levellers Press.

Bresnihan P. Byrne M.(2014), “Escape into the City: Everyday Practices of Commoning and the Production of Urban Space in Dublin’’, Antipode, 2014.

Colding, J. et al., (2013), “Urban green commons: Insights on urban common property systems “, Global Environmental Change, 23(5): 1039-1051.

Colding, J. and Barthel, S. (2013), “The potential of ‘Urban Green Commons’ in the resilience building of cities’’’, Ecological Economics, 86: 156–166.

Cangelosi E. (2014), Publica e Communis, Acqua, Mondo Romano e Beni Comuni, Roma: Aracne.

Castells M., Caraca J., Cardoso G. (2013), Aftermath, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Ciriacy-Wantrup S.V., Bishop R.C. (1975), “Common Property as a Concept in Natural Resources Policy”, Natural Resources Journal, 15 (4): 713-727.

Crouch D., Ward C. (1988), The Allotment: Its Landscape and Culture, London: Faber and Faber.

Coriat B., “Le retour des communs’’, Revue de la régulation, 14 | 2e semestre, Published December 12, 2013, Retrieved November 15, 2014: (http://regulation.revues.org/10463)

Dardot P., Laval C. (2014), Commun. Essai sur la Révolution au XXIe siècle, Paris: La Découverte

De Angelis M. (2010), ‘’The Production of Commons and the “Explosion” of the Middle Class’’, Antipode, 42(4).

De Angelis M.(2014), Crisis and commons today. in S Brincat S.(ed.), Communism in the 21st Century, Santa Barbara: Praeger, Vol. 3. 2014

De Angelis, M. , Harvie D. (2014) “The Commons”, in Parker M., Cheney G., Fournier V. and Land C. (eds), The Routledge Companion to Alternative Organization, London: Routledge, 280-294.

Dietz T., Dolsak N., Ostrom E., Stern P. C. (2001), The Drama of the Commons, Comittee on the Human Dimensions of Global Change, Washington (DC): National Academy Press.

Dolšak N., Ostrom E. (2003), The Commons in the New Millennium: Challenges and Adaptation, Cambridge (MA): MIT Press.

Feenstra W. Gail, McGrew S., Campbell D. (1999), Entrepreneurial Community Gardens: Growing Food, Skills, Jobs and Communities, Oakland (CA): University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Communication Services.

Federici S. (2010), “Feminism and the politic of the commons” in Hughes C, Peach S. and Van Meter K. (ed.) Uses of a World Wind, Movement, Movements, and Contemporary Radical Currents in the United States, Oakland: AK Press.

Goldman M. (ed.) (1998), Privatizing Nature: Political Struggles for the Global Commons, New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Hardin G. (1968), “The Tragedy of the Commons”, Science, 162 (3859) , pp. 1243- 1248

Hardt M., A. Negri (2009), Commonwealth, Cambridge (MA): Belknap Press of Harvard University.

Hopkins R. (2000), “The Food Producing Neighbourhood”, in Barton H. (ed.), Sustainable Communities: The Potential for Eco-neighbourhoods, London: Earthscan, pp. 199 – 215.

Howards E. (1902), Garden Cities of Tomorrow, London: Swan Sonnenschein & Co.

Linebaugh P. (2008), The Magna Carta Manifesto: Liberties and Commons for All, Berkeley: University of California Press.

Lopez Izquierdo N. (2014), Agricoltura Urbana, Published October 24, 2014, Retrieved October 29, 2014 (http://www.internazionale.it/atlante/agricoltura-urbana/)

Marella M.R. (2013), “Pratiche del comune. Per una nuova idea di cittadinanza”, Lette-ra Internazionale, 116 (2): 40-44.

Marella M.R.(ed.) (2012), Oltre il pubblico e il privato, Verona: Ombre Corte.

Mattei U. (2011), Beni Comuni. Un Manifesto, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Mosimane, A., Breen C., Nkhhata B. A (2012), “Collective identity and resilience in the management of common pool resources’’, International Journal of the Commons, [S.l.], 6(2): 344-362.

Morán, N. (2009), Huertos urbanos en tres ciudades europeas: Londres, Berlín, Madrid. Biblioteca Ciudades para un futuro más sostenible. Published January 25, 2012 Retrieved November, 15 2014 (http://habitat.aq.upm.es/boletin/n47/anmor.htm)

Naimark, Susan (ed) (1982), A Handbook of Community Gardening, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.

Ostrom E. (1990), Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge- New York : Cambridge University Press.

Ostrom E. (1994), Neither Market nor State: Governance of Common-pool Resources in the Twenty-first Century, IFPRI Lecture Series, Washington DC: International Food Policy research Institute.

Petrella R. (2010), Res-Publica e Beni Comuni. Pensare le rivoluzioni del XXI secolo. Verona: Ass. Monastero del Bene Comune.

Schmelzkopf K. (2002), “Incommensurability, Land Use, and the Right to Space: Community Gardens”, New York City Urban Geography, 23(4): 323 – 343.

Sciurba A. (ed.) (2013), Living in Dignity in the 21st century – Poverty and Inequality in Societies of Human Rights: the Paradox of Democracies, Strasbourg: Council of Europe.

Tornaghi C. (2014), ‘’Critical geography of urban agriculture”, Progress in Human Geography: an international review of geographical work in the social sciences and humanities, 38(4): 551-567.

Wilson P. L., Weinberg B. (1999), Avant Gardening: Ecological Struggle in the City and the World, New York: Autonomedia.

Websites

www.aftermathproject.com Retrieved September 15,2014

www.bruxellesenvironnement.be Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.cenj.ehess.fr Retrieved June 15, 2014

www.commonssense.it Retrieved September 20, 2014

www.commonsandeconomics.org Retrieved September 20, 2014

www.euroalter.com/past-events/forum-citoyen-quel-futur-pour-

leau-et-les-biens-communs-en-europe Retrieved June 15, 2014

epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu Retrieved October 24, 2014

www.guerrillagardening.org Retrieved May 2013 and October 24, 2014

www.internazionale.it/atlante/agricoltura-urbana/ Retrieved October 24, 2014

www.kbs-frb.be Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.p2pfoundation.net/International_Commons_Conference_-_2010 Retrieved October10, 2014

www.politicalecology.eu/news/item/re-commoning-democracy Retrieved October 11, 2014

www.promethea.be Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.treebranch.org/community_gardens.htm Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.quartiers.irisnet.be/fr/contrats-de-quartiers-durables Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.quartiersverts.be Retrieved May 20, 2013

www.supurbfood.eu Retrieved October 24, 2014

www.urbanagricultureeurope.la.rwth-aachen.de Retrieved October 24, 2014


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.