What Matters? Changes in European Youth Participation


Abstract


During the twentieth century, theoretical and empirical studies aimed to analyse changes in individual participation and in social and political dynamics. A great emphasis was attributed to the process of individualization. Young people were described as a generation with a limited political involvement, especially considering traditional forms of political participation, but more and more likely to search an “individualized” way towards the participation. Furlong and Cartmel bring back the youth identity to the thesis about the reflexive rebuilding of identity, according to which the individualization is a process due to some structural characteristics of post-industrial society. Employing data from European Values Study researches, we test if and how structural variables and contextual dynamics affect political involvement and its changes, with particular attention on youth involvement. Actually, participation takes the form of a multifaceted reality and youth individual profiles are heterogeneous. The process of individualization has, in this sense, different effects and various consequences on participation’s profiles. According to these considerations, this analysis shows the incidence of structural, contextual and cognitive dimensions on individual choices to participate, focusing on longitudinal plan and cohorts. A second step compares the causal importance of structural and cognitive dimension on different typologies of involvement.

Keywords: Individualization; Participation; Association; Youth Involvement

References


Aaltonen S. (2013), “’Trying to Push Things Through’: Forms and Bounds of Agency in Transitions of School-age Young People”, Journal of Youth Studies 16 (3): 375–90.

Abbott, A. (2011), Chaos of disciplines, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Alteri L., L. Raffini (2007), “Interesse per la politica e mobilitazione”, in M. Bontempi, R. Pocaterra (eds.) I figli del disincanto. Giovani e partecipazione politica in Europa, Milano,

Bruno Mondadori: 12-32.

Baglioni L.G. (2011), “Individualizzazione”, in G. Bettin Lattes, L. Raffini (eds.) Manuale di Sociologia, Padova, Cedam: 422-445.

Beck U. (1998), World Risk Society, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Bauman Z. (2000), Liquid Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck U. (2000), I rischi della libertà, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Beck U. (2008), Costruire la propria vita, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Beck U., A. Giddens and S. Lash (1994), Reflexive Modernization. Politics, Tradition and Aesthetics in the Modern Social Order, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Beck U., E. Beck-Gernsheim (2002), Individualization: Institutionalized Individualism and its Social and Political Consequences, London: Sage.

Best A. (2011), “Youth Identity Formation: Contemporary Identity Work”, Sociology Compass 5(10): 908–22.

Bettin Lattes G. (ed.) (1999), Giovani e Democrazia in Europa, Cedam, Padova.

Biggart, A., A. Walther (2006), “Coping with Yo-Yo-Transitions: Young Adults’ Struggle for Support, between Family and State in Comparative Perspective”, in C. Leccardi, E. Ruspini (eds), A New Youth? Young People, Generations and Family Life, Farnham: Ashgate: 41–62.

Boudon R. (1999), Les sense des valeurs, Paris: PUF.

Boudon, R. (2001), The origins of value, London: Piscataway.

Boudon R. (2003), Declino della morale? Declino dei valori?, Bologna: Il Mulino.

Cicchelli V., O. Galland (2009), “Le trasformazioni della gioventù e dei rapporti tra le generazioni” in L. Sciolla (ed.), Processi e trasformazioni sociali, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Cuturi V., R. Sampugnaro and V. Tomaselli (2000), L’elettore instabile. Voto/non voto, Milano: Franco Angeli.

Cuzzocrea V., R. Collins (2015), “Collaborative Individualization? Peer-to-peer Action in Youth Transitions”, Young n.23(2): 136-153.

De Beer P., F. Koster (2009), Sticking Together or Falling Apart? Solidarity in an Era of Individualization and Globalization, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

De Lillo A. (2007), “I valori e l’atteggiamento verso la vita”, in Rapporto giovani. Sesta indagine dell’Istituto IARD sulla condizione giovanile in Italia, Bologna: Il Mulino.

De Singly F. (2009), Le trasformazioni della famiglia e il processo d’individualizzazione in

L. Sciolla (eds), Processi e trasformazioni sociali, Roma-Bari: Laterza.

Elias N. (1982), The Civilizing Process, Vol.II. State Formation and Civilization, Oxford: Blackwell.

Evans K. (2002), “Taking Control of their Lives? Agency in Young Adult Transitions in England and the New Germany”, Journal of Youth Studies, 5(3): 245–69.

Furlong A. (2006), “Balancing Change and Continuity” in C. Leccardi, E. Ruspini (eds), A New Youth? Young People, Generations and Family Life, Farnham: Ashgate.

Furlong A. (ed.) (2009), Handbook of Youth and Young Adulthood: New perspectives and Agendas, London: Routledge.

Furlong A., F. Cartmel (1997), Young People and Social Change: new perspectives, Berkshire: Open University Press/Mc GrawHill.

Furlong A., F. Cartmel (2007), Young People and Social Change, New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Giddens A. (1991a), Modernity and self-identity, London: Polity Press.

Giddens A. (1991b), The consequences of modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Giddens A. (2000), Runaway world. As globalization is reshaping our lifes, London-New York: Routledge.

Giddens A. (1994), Beyond Left and Right, Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Hedström P. (2005), Dissecting the Social: On the Principles of Analytical Sociology, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Heelas P., S. Lash and P. Morris (eds) (1996), Detraditionalization, Cambridge: Blackwell.

Heinz W. R. (2001), “Work and the Life Course: A Cosmopolitan-Local Perspective” in V.W. Marshall, W. R. Heinz, H. Krüger and A. Verma (eds), Restructuring Work and the

Life Course, Toronto-Buffalo-London: University of Toronto Press.

Houtman D., S. Aupers and W. Koster (2011), Paradoxes of Individualization: Social Control and Social Conflict in Contemporary modernity, Farnham: Ashgate.

Hushchyna S. (2015), “The development of freedom as a value in the process of individualization”, European Scientific Journal, 2015 (3): 70-77.

Hustinx L. (2005), “Weakening organizational ties? A classification of styles of volunteering in the Flemish red cross”, Social Service Review, 79(4): 624–652.

Leccardi C. (2009), “Le trasformazioni della morale sessuale e dei rapporti fra i generi” in L. Sciolla (eds), Processi e trasformazioni sociali, Roma-Bari, Laterza: 297-323.

Leccardi C., E. Ruspini (eds) (2006), A New Youth? Young People, Generations and Family Life, Farnham: Ashgate.

Millefiorini A. (2015), L’individuo fragile. Genesi e compimento del processo di individualizzazione in Occidente, Sant’Arcangelo di Romagna: Apogeo-Maggioli.

Nugin R. (2013), “Individualism and Its Different Faces: Some Cases from Post-socialist Estonia”, Journal of Youth Studies 16 (7): 809–829.

Pollock G. (1997), “Individualization and the transition from youth to adulthood”, Young, 5 (1): 55-67.

Schwartz S. J., J. E. Cotè and J. Arnett (2005), “Identity and Agency in Emerging Adulthood: Two Developmental Routes in the Individualization Process”, Youth & Society 37(2): 201–29.

Sciolla L. (2004), La sfida dei valori, Bologna: il Mulino.

Sciolla L. (2009), Processi e trasformazioni sociali, Roma-Bari:

Laterza.

Stayner J. (2007), Modern Political Communication, Cambridg: Polity.

Skinner Q. (2012), Liberty before liberalism, Cambridge: Cambridge university press,

Van Ingen E., Dekker P. (2011), “Dissolution of Associational Life? Testing the Individualization and Informalization Hypotheses on Leisure Activities in The Netherlands Between 1975 and 2005, Social Indicators Research, 100: 209–224.

Wallace C., M. Cross (eds) (1990), Youth in Transition: The Sociology of Youth and Youth Policy, London: Falmer.

Wall E., A. Olofsson (2008), “Young people making sense of risk. How meanings of risk are materialized within the social context of everyday life”, Young, 16: 431-448.

Weber L. M., A. Loumakis and J. Bergman (2003), “Who Participates and Why?: An Analysis of Citizens on the Internet and the Mass Public”, Social Science Computer Review, 21: 26-42.

Woodman D. (2011) “Class, Individualization and Tracing Processes of Inequality in a Changing World: A Reply to Steven Roberts”, Journal of Youth Studies 13(6): 737–46.

Woodman D., S. Threadgold (2011), “The future of the sociology of youth Institutional, theoretical and methodological challenges”, Youth Studies Australia, 30 (3): 8-12.

Wyn J., D. Woodman (2006), “Generation, Youth and Social Change in Australia”, Journal of Youth Studies 9(5): 495–514.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.