ساخت اپلیکیشن

Between Evasion and Activism: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Political Behavior of German and Swedish Long-Term Unemployed


Abstract


This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v8i3p788

Keywords: Long-term unemployment; political participation; informal networks; qualitative methods; Germany; Sweden

References


Amnå E., Ekman J. (2014), “Standby Citizens: Diverse Faces of Political Passivity”, European Political Science Review, 6(2): 261-281.

Arbetsförmedlingen (2014) ”Öppet arbetslösa och sökande i program med aktivitetsstöd”, Retrieved September 14, 2015

(http://www.arbetsformedlingen.se/Om-oss/Statistik-prognoser/Tidigare-statistik.html)

Baglioni S., Guigni M. (eds. 2014), Civil Society, Unemployment and Precarity in Europe, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Baglioni S., Baumgarten B., Chabanet D. and Lahusen C. (2008), “Transcending Marginalization: The Mobilization of the Unemployed in France, Germany and Italy in a Comparative Perspective”, Mobilization: The International Quarterly, 13(3): 323–335.

Banks M.H., Ullah P. (1987), “Political Attitudes and Voting among Unemployed and Employed Youth”, Journal of Adolescence 10(2): 201–216.

Barber L.B., Stone M.R., Hunt J.E. and Eccles J.S. (2009), “Benefits of Activity Participation: The Roles of Identity Affirmation and Peer Group Norm Sharing”, in Mahoney J.L., Larson R.W. and Eccles J.S. (eds.), Organized Activities as Context of Development, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Bay A.H., Blekesaune M. (2002), “Youth, Unemployment and Political Marginalization”, International Journal of Social Welfare, 11(2): 132–139.

Berkel R. van, Valkenburg B. (2007), Making it Personal. Individualising Activation Services in the EU, Bristol: Polity Press.

Brady H.E., Verba S. and Schlozman K.L. (1995), “Beyond SES: A Resource Model of Political Participation”, The American Political Science Review 89(2): 271–294.

Breakwell G.M. (1986), “Political and Attributional Responses of the Young Short-term Unemployed”, Political Psychology 7(3): 575–586.

Broman C.L., Hamilton V.L. and Hoffman W.S. (2001), Stress and distress among the unemployed: hard times and vulnerable people, New York: Springer.

Bundesagentur für Arbeit (2011) ”Arbeitsmarkt in Zahlen, Arbeitslose nach Rechtskreisen – Jahreszahlen”, Retrieved September 14, 2015 (http://statistik.arbeitsagentur.de/Statistikdaten/Detail/201012/iiia4/monats-jahresquoten/monats-jahresquoten-d-0-pdf.pdf)

Cainzos M., Voces C. (2010), “Class Inequalities in Political Participation and the ‘Death of Class’ Debate”, International Sociology 25(3): 383–418.

Carle J. (2003), “Welfare Regimes and Political Activity among Young Unemployed People”, in Hammer T. (ed.) Youth Unemployment and Social Exclusion in Europe. A comparative Study, Bristol: Policy Press.

Chabanet D., Faniel J. (eds. 2011), The Mobilization of the Unemployed in Europe: From Acquiescence to Protest?, Houndmills: Palgrave.

Charmaz K. (2000), “Grounded Theory Methodology. Objectivist and Constructivist Qualitative Methods”, in Denzin N.K., Lincoln Y. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2nd edition, pp. 509–535.

Charmaz K. (2006), Constructing Grounded Theory. London: Sage.

Dalton R.J. (2008), “Citizenship Norms and the Expansion of Political Participation”, Political Studies, 56(1): 76–98.

Deth J.W. van (1986), “A Note on Measuring Political Participation in Comparative Re-search”, Quality and Quantity, 20(2-3): 261-272.

Diani M., McAdam D. (2003), Social Movements and Networks, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Diplock S. (2002), ”Non‐Voters, Political Disconnection and Parliamentary Democracy”, Parliamentary Affairs, 55 (4): 715-730.

Evans G. (2002), The End of Class Politics? Class Voting in Comparative Context, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Esping-Andersen G. (1990), The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Falk A., Zweimüller J. (2005), Unemployment and Right-wing Extremist Crime, Bonn: Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit, discussion paper no. 1540.

Furlong A., Cartmel F. (1997), Young People and Social Change: Individualisation and Risk in Late Modernity, Buckingham: Open University Press.

Furlong A., Cartmel F. (2012), “Social Change and Political Engagement among Young People: Generation and the 2009/2010 British Election Survey”, Parliamentary Affairs 65: 13–28.

Gallie D., Paugam S. (eds. 2000), Welfare Regimes and the Experience of Unemployment in Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gauthier M. (2003), “The Inadequacy of Concepts: The Rise of Youth Interest in Civic Participation in Quebec”, Journal of Youth Studies, 6(3): 265-276

Gilbert N. (2002), Transformation of the Welfare State. The Silent Surrender of Public Responsibility, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Giugni M., Lorenzini J. (2013), “Employment Status and Political Participation: Does Exclusion Influence the Protest Behavior of the Young Unemployed?”, in Andreosso-O'Callaghan B. and Royall F. (eds.), Economic and Political Change in Asia and Europe: Social Movement Analyses, New York: Springer.

Glaser B.G. (1992), Basics of Grounded Theory Analysis: Emergence vs. Forcing, Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.

Gordon H.R., Taft J.K. (2011), “Rethinking Youth Political Socialization: Teenage Activists Talk Back”, Youth & Society, 43(4): 1499–1527.

Grimmer B., Hobbins J. (2014), “Active Entrepreneurs and Blue-collar Workers. Cultural Understandings Mirrored in European Youth Unemployment Policies”, International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy 34 (7/8): 559-576.

Hammer T. (ed. 2003), Youth Unemployment and Social Exclusion in Europe. A Comparative Study, Bristol: Policy Press.

Harris A., Wyn J. and Jones S. (2010), “Beyond Apathetic or Activist Youth: ‘Ordinary’ Young People and Contemporary Forms of Participation”, Young 18(9): 9–32.

Henn M., Weinstein M. and Forrest S. (2005), “Uninterested youth? Young People’s Attitudes towards Party Politics in Britain”, Political Studies 53: 556–578.

Huckfeldt R.R. (1979), “Political Participation and the Neighborhood Social Context”, American Journal of Political Science, 23(3): 579-592.

Huffman A.H., Culbertson S.S., Waymenta H.A. and Irving L.H. (2015), “Resource Replacement and Psychological Well-being During Unemployment: The Role of Family Support”, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 89: 74–82.

Jahoda M. (1982), Employment and Unemployment – A Social-Psychological Analysis, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kieselbach T., Traiser U. (2004), “Long-term Unemployment and the Risk of Social Exclusion among Young People in Europe: Recommendations for Activation Policies”, in Serrano A. (ed.) Are Activation Policies Converging in Europe? The European Employment Strategy for Young People, Brussels: ETUI, pp. 415–450.

Kitchener M., Kirkpatrick I. and Whipp R. (2000), “Supervising Professional Work under New Public Management: Evidence from an ‘Invisible Trade’”, British Journal of Management, 11(3): 213-26.

Knutsen O. (2006), Class Voting in Western Europe. A Comparative Longitudinal study, Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kronauer M. (1998), “‘Social Exclusion’ and ‘Underclass’ – New Concepts for the Analysis of Poverty”, in Andress H.J. (ed.) Empirical Poverty Research in a Comparative Perspective, Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 51–75.

Kumlin S and Stadelmann-Steffen I. (2014) How Welfare States Shape the Democratic Public: Policy Feedback, Participation, Voting, and Attitudes. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing.

Lahusen C. (2012), “The Protests of the Unemployed in France, Germany and Sweden (1994–2004): Protest Dynamics and Political Contexts”, Social Movement Studies, 11(3): 1–22.

Lahusen C. (2014), ”The Localism of Disruptive Actions: The Protests of the Unemployed in Germany”, in Chabanet D. and Royall F. (eds.), From Silence to Protest. International Perspectives on Weakly Resourced Groups, Farnham: Ashgate, pp. 141-158.

Lin N. (2000), “Inequality in Social Capital”, Contemporary Sociology, 29(6): 785-795.

Lorenzini J. (2012), “Employment Status, Social Capital, and Political Participation: A Comparison of Unemployed and Employed Youth in Geneva”, Swiss Political Science Association, 18(3): 332–351.

Maloney W., van Deth J. (eds). (2010), Civil Society and Activism in Europe: Contextualizing Engagement and Political Orientations, London: Routledge.

Marsh A. (1974), “Explorations in Unorthodox Political Behaviour.: A Scale to Measure 'Protest Potential'”, European Journal of Political Research, 2(2): 107-129.

Manning N. (2014), “The Relational Self and the Political Engagements of Young Adults”, Journal of Sociology, 50(4): 486–500.

McClurg S.D. (2003), “Social Networks and Political Participation:
The Role of Social Interaction in Explaining Political Participation”, Political Research Quarterly, 56(4): 448–465.

Miles M.B., Huberman, A.M. and Saldaña J. (2014), Qualitative Data Analysis: a Methods Sourcebook, 3. ed. Los Angeles: Sage.

Mills J., Bonner A. and Francis K. (2006), “The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory”, International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 5(1): 1–10.

O'Toole T., Lister M., Marsh D., Jones S. and McDonagh A. (2003) “Tuning out or left out? Participation and Non-Participation among Young People”, Contemporary Politics, 9(1): 45–61.

Parsons B.M. (2015), “The Social Identity Politics of Peer Networks”, American Politics Research, 43(4): 680-707.

Plutzer E. (2002), ”Becoming a Habitual Voter: Inertia, Resources, and Growth in Young Adulthood”, American Political Science Review, 96 (1): 41-56.

Rantakeisu U. (2009), ”Klass, kön och platsanvisning. Om ungdomars och arbetsförmedlares möte på arbetsförmedlingen”, Report for the Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU) no. 2009:3. Uppsala: IFAU.

Saenger G.H. (1945), “Social Status and Political Behavior”, American Journal of Sociology, 51(2): 103-113.

Schlozman K.L., Verba S. (1979), Injury to Insult: Unemployment, Class, and Political Response, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Schneider A. and Ingram H. (1993) “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy”. The American Political Science Review, 87(2): 334-347.

Scott J.C. (1985), Weapons of the Weak. Everyday Forms of Peasant Resistance. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Schur L. (2003), “Employment and the Creation of an Active Citizenry”, British Journal of Industrial Relations, 41(4): 751–771.

Sinclair B. (2012), The Social Citizen. Peer Networks and Political Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Solvak M., Vassil K. (2015), “Indifference or Indignation? Explaining Purposive Vote Spoiling in Elections”, Journal of Elections, Public Opinion and Parties, published online: 15 Jul 2015.

Starrin B., Rantakeisu U. and Forsberg E. (1999), ”I arbetslöshetens spår: ekonomisk stress, skam och ohälsa”, Bustos Castro P., Härenstam A. (eds.) I vanmaktens spår: om sociala villkor, utsatthet och ohälsa, 1. uppl. Umeå: Boréa.

Teorell J. (2003), “Linking Social Capital to Political Participation: Voluntary Associations and Networks of Recruitment in Sweden”, Scandinavian Political Studies, 26(1): 49–66.

Teorell J., Torcal M. and Montero J.R. (2007), “Political Participation: Mapping the Terrain”, in Deth J.W. van, Montero J.R. and Westholm A. (eds.), Citizenship and involvement in European democracies: A comparative analysis, London: Routledge, pp. 334–57.

Verba S., Nie N. (1972), Participation in America: Political Democracy and Social Equality. New York: Harper and Row.

Verba S., Schlozman K. and Brady H. (1995), Voice and Equality: Civic Voluntarism in American Politics, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Weishaupt T. (2010), “A silent revolution? New management ideas and the reinvention of European public employment services”, Socio-Economic Review, 8: 461–486.

Yates M., Youniss J. (1998), ”Community Service and Political Identity Development in Adolescence”, Journal of Social Issues, 554: 495-513.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.