Governing a Pandemic with Data on the Contactless Path to AI: Personal Data, Public Health, and the Digital Divide in South Korea, Europe and the United States in Tracking of COVID-19


Is conditional and temporary collection of data necessary in a public health crisis for democracies? This article attempts at examining the institutional variance in digital tool deployment to contact trace COVID-19 across six different democratic systems: South Korea, Europe (Germany, France, Italy and the UK post-Brexit) and the U.S. It aims at projecting varied country strategies in embracing the digital economy of the future driven by artificial intelligence (AI) as the contactless economy becomes the norm. Europe and the U.S. have refrained from a centralized contact tracing method that involve GPS data collection and used a minimalist approach utilizing apps based on Google and Apple's Application Programming Interface (API) enabled by Bluetooth technology downloadable only voluntary by citizens, with western European countries striving to abide by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), in turn failing to flatten the curve earlier on during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, South Korea's maximalist approach of digital tracing utilizing big data analysis on the centralized COVID-19 Smart Management System (SMS) platform and apps on self-diagnosis and self-quarantine under the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act (IDCPA) – revised in the aftermath of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2015 – led the country to flatten the curve at an early stage. In addressing the gaps among varied approaches, this article analyzes the legal foundations and policy rationale for conditional and temporary data collection and processing across jurisdictions.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v14i1p79

Keywords: South Korea; Europe; United States; COVID-19; Technology; Contact Tracing; Contactless Economy; Personal Data; Civil Liberties; Public Health; Digital Divide; Artificial Intelligence; General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR); Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act (IDCPA)


Abeler, J. et al. (2020) ‘COVID-19 Contact Tracing and Data Protection Can Go Together’, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(4), p. e19359. doi: 10.2196/19359.

Abueg, M. et al. (2020) Modeling the combined effect of digital exposure notification and non-pharmaceutical interventions on the COVID-19 epidemic in Washington state. preprint. Epidemiology. doi: 10.1101/2020.08.29.20184135.

Almeida, B. de A. et al. (2020) ‘Personal data usage and privacy considerations in the COVID-19 global pandemic’, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 25(suppl 1), pp. 2487–2492. doi: 10.1590/1413-81232020256.1.11792020.

Altmann, S. et al. (2020) ‘Acceptability of App-Based Contact Tracing for COVID-19: Cross-Country Survey Study’, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(8), p. e19857. doi: 10.2196/19857.

Application TousAntiCovid (no date). Available at:

Arakpogun, E. O. et al. (2020) ‘Digital contact-tracing and pandemics: Institutional and technological preparedness in Africa’, World Development, 136, p. 105105. doi: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2020.105105.

Bassi, A. et al. (2020) ‘An overview of mobile applications (apps) to support the coronavirus disease-2019 response in India’, Indian Journal of Medical Research, 0(0), p. 0. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1200_20.

Benke, K. and Benke, G. (2018) ‘Artificial Intelligence and Big Data in Public Health’, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15(12), p. 2796. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15122796.

Böhmer, M. M. et al. (2020) ‘Investigation of a COVID-19 outbreak in Germany resulting from a single travel-associated primary case: a case series’, The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(8), pp. 920–928. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30314-5.

Bradford, L., Aboy, M. and Liddell, K. (2020) ‘COVID-19 contact tracing apps: a stress test for privacy, the GDPR, and data protection regimes’, Journal of Law and the Biosciences, 7(1), p. lsaa034. doi: 10.1093/jlb/lsaa034.

Brandom, R. (2020) ‘Answering the 12 Biggest Questions about Apple and Google’s New Coronavirus Tracking Project’, The Verge, 11 April. Available at:

Braun, M. and Hummel, P. (2020) ‘Contact-tracing apps: contested answers to ethical questions’, Nature, 583(7816), pp. 360–360. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-02084-z.

Bruns, D. P., Kraguljac, N. V. and Bruns, T. R. (2020) ‘COVID-19: Facts, Cultural Considerations, and Risk of Stigmatization’, Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 31(4), pp. 326–332. doi: 10.1177/1043659620917724.

Busvine, D. and Rinke, A. (2020a) ‘Germany at odds with Apple on smartphone coronavirus contact tracing’, Reuters, 23 April. Available at:

Busvine, D. and Rinke, A. (2020b) ‘Germany flips to Apple-Google approach on smartphone contact tracing’, Reuters, 26 April. Available at:

Chan, H. (2020) ‘Pervasive personal data collection at the heart of South Korea’s COVID-19 success may not translate’, Thompson Reuters Blog, 26 March. Available at:

Chen, C.-M. et al. (2020) ‘Containing COVID-19 Among 627,386 Persons in Contact With the Diamond Princess Cruise Ship Passengers Who Disembarked in Taiwan: Big Data Analytics’, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(5), p. e19540. doi: 10.2196/19540.

Chen, W. J. et al. (2020) ‘Development of a semi-structured, multifaceted, computer-aided questionnaire for outbreak investigation: e-Outbreak Platform’, Biomedical Journal, p. S2319417020300949. doi: 10.1016/

CISION PR Newswire (2020) ‘YouGov survey finds 80% of data-driven businesses claim they have a critical advantage as impact of pandemic continues’, 12 November. Available at:

Ciucci, M. and Gouardères, F. (2020) National COVID-19 contact tracing apps. Briefing: ITRE in Focus PE 652.711. Policy

Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, Directorate-General for Internal Policies, European Parliament.

Clover, J. (2020) ‘California’s Exposure Notification System Rolling Out on iPhone Thursday’, MacRumors, 7 December. Available at:

Coghlan, S., Cheong, M. and Coghlan, B. (2020) ‘Tracking, tracing, trust: contemplating mitigating the impact of COVID‐19 through technological interventions’, Medical Journal of Australia, 213(2), p. 94. doi: 10.5694/mja2.50680.

Collado-Borrell, R. et al. (2020) ‘Features and Functionalities of Smartphone Apps Related to COVID-19: Systematic Search in App Stores and Content Analysis’, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), p. e20334. doi: 10.2196/20334.

Council of the European Union (2020a) Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications). Presidency discussion paper 9243/20. Brussels. Available at:

Council of the European Union (2020b) Proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council concerning the respect for private life and the protection of personal data in electronic communications and repealing Directive 2002/58/EC (Regulation on Privacy and Electronic Communications). Progress report 12891/20. Brussels. Available at:

Criddle, C. and Kelion, L. (2020) ‘Coronavirus contact-tracing: World split between two types of app’, BBC News, 7 May. Available at:

Denley, A., Foulsham, M. and Hitchen, B. (2019) GDPR: how to achieve and maintain compliance.

Drozdiak, N., Lee, Y. and De Vynck, G. (2020) ‘Contact-Tracing Apps Aren’t the Technology Panacea People Hoped’, Bloomberg Businessweek, 30 June. Available at:

DW News (2020) ‘Germany pivots to decentralized contact tracing app’, Deutsche Welle, 5 May. Available at:

DW News (no date) ‘Germany launches “best” coronavirus tracing app’, Deutsche Welle. Available at:

Ekong, I., Chukwu, E. and Chukwu, M. (2020) ‘COVID-19 Mobile Positioning Data Contact Tracing and Patient Privacy Regulations: Exploratory Search of Global Response Strategies and the Use of Digital Tools in Nigeria’, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(4), p. e19139. doi: 10.2196/19139.

Etherington, D. (2020a) ‘Apple and Google launch exposure notification API, enabling public health authorities to release apps’, TechCrunch, 21 May. Available at:


Etherington, D. (2020b) ‘California’s CA Notify app to offer statewide exposure notification using Apple and Google’s framework’, TechCrunch, 8 December. Available at:

EU GDPR & EU-U.S. PRIVACY SHIELD; A POCKET GUIDE, SECOND EDITION (2019). Place of publication not identified: IT GOVERNANCE Publishing.

Europäische Union and Europarat (eds) (2018) Handbook on European data protection law (2018 Edition). 2018 edition. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union (Handbook / FRA, European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights).

European Commission (2019a) General Data Protection Regulation: one year on. Press release. European Commission. Available at:

European Commission (2019b) General Data Protection Regulation shows results, but work needs to continue. Press release. European Commission. Available at:

European Parliament (2020) ‘P9_TA (2020)0054: EU coordinated action to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences European Parliament resolution of 17 April 2020 on EU coordinated action to combat the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences (2020/2616(RSP))’. Available at:

Farrell, H. and Newman, A. (2019) Of Privacy and Power: The Transatlantic Struggle over Freedom and Security. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Fateh-Moghadam, P. et al. (2020) Contact tracing during Phase I of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Province of Trento, Italy: key findings and recommendations. preprint. Epidemiology. doi: 10.1101/2020.07.16.20127357.

Ferretti, L. et al. (2020) ‘Quantifying SARS-CoV-2 transmission suggests epidemic control with digital contact tracing’, Science, 368(6491), p. eabb6936. doi: 10.1126/science.abb6936.

Fouquet, H. (2020) ‘France Says Apple Bluetooth Policy Is Blocking Virus Tracker’, Bloomberg, 21 April. Available at:

France 24 with AFP (2020) ‘France’s Covid-19 tracing app fails to engage, chalking up roughly 1.5 million users’, 23 June. Available at:

Fubini, F. and Pennisi, M. (2020) ‘Immuni, Luca Ferrari (Bending Spoons): «Per noi nessun guadagno, fiducia e privacy sono fondamentali»’, Corriere Della Sera Tecnologia, 22 April. Available at:

Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali (2020) ‘Coronavirus: No do-it-yourself (DIY) data collection, says the Italian DPA’. Garante per la Protezione dei Dati Personali. Available at:

Gim, J. et al. (2018) Yureop jeongchiron (유럽정치론 = European politics). Seoul: Pagyŏngsa.

Giordano, G. et al. (2020) ‘Modelling the COVID-19 epidemic and implementation of population-wide interventions in Italy’, Nature Medicine, 26(6), pp. 855–860. doi: 10.1038/s41591-020-0883-7.

Godlee, F. (2020) ‘Covid-19: Testing testing’, BMJ, p. m1918. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1918.

Google, A. (no date a) Exposure Notifications: Using technology to help public health authorities fight COVID 19. Available at:

Google, A. (no date b) Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing by Google and Apple. Available at:

Greer, S. et al. (2021) Coronavirus Politics: The Comparative Politics and Policy of COVID-19. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. doi: 10.3998/mpub.11927713.

Guillon, M. and Kergall, P. (2020) ‘Attitudes and opinions on quarantine and support for a contact-tracing application in France during the COVID-19 outbreak’, Public Health, 188, pp. 21–31. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2020.08.026.

Hendl, T., Chung, R. and Wild, V. (2020) ‘Pandemic Surveillance and Racialized Subpopulations: Mitigating Vulnerabilities in COVID-19 Apps’, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10034-7.

Hern, A. (2020) ‘France urges Apple and Google to ease privacy rules on contact tracing’, The Guardian, 21 April. Available at:

Iacoboni, J. (2020) ‘Is it Safe? The Immuni App Digital Surveillance during the Coronavirus Pandemic’, Byline Times, 1 May. Available at:

IMD (2020) IMD World Digital Competitiveness Ranking 2020. Institute for Management Development. Available at:

Ince, D. (2019) A dictionary of the Internet. Available at: (Accessed: 10 June 2020).

Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act (2020). Available at:

Information Commissioner’s Office (2019) Guide to the GDPR.

Jian, S.-W. et al. (2020) ‘Contact tracing with digital assistance in Taiwan’s COVID-19 outbreak response’, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 101, pp. 348–352. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2020.09.1483.

Kahn, J. (2020) Digital contact tracing for pandemic response: ethics and governance guidance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Kaspar, K. (2020) ‘Motivations for Social Distancing and App Use as Complementary Measures to Combat the COVID-19 Pandemic: Quantitative Survey Study’, Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22(8), p. e21613. doi: 10.2196/21613.

Kim, H and Korea Artificial Intelligence Association. (2019) In'gong chinŭng kwa pŏp (Artificial Intelligence and Law = 인공지능과 법).

Kim, H.-K. (2020) ‘Samsung helps reduce faulty test-kits amid

virus outbreak’, Dong-a Ilbo, 11 June. Available at:

Kim, M. et al. (2020) ‘Hi-COVIDNet: Deep Learning Approach to Predict Inbound COVID-19 Patients and Case Study in South Korea’, in Proceedings of the 26th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery & Data Mining. KDD ’20: The 26th ACM SIGKDD Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, Virtual Event CA USA: ACM, pp. 3466–3473. doi: 10.1145/3394486.3412864.

Kleinman, R. A. and Merkel, C. (2020) ‘Digital contact tracing for COVID-19’, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 192(24), pp. E653–E656. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.200922.

Klenk, M. and Duijf, H. (2020) ‘Ethics of digital contact tracing and COVID-19: who is (not) free to go?’, Ethics and Information Technology. doi: 10.1007/s10676-020-09544-0.

Kretzschmar, M. E. et al. (2020) ‘Impact of delays on effectiveness of contact tracing strategies for COVID-19: a modelling study’, The Lancet Public Health, 5(8), pp. e452–e459. doi: 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30157-2.

KTV YouTube Channel (2020a) KOREA COVID-19 Smart Management System. Available at:

KTV YouTube Channel (2020b) MOLIT & KCDC Online Briefing on COVID-19 Smart Management System (translated). Available at:

Lee, D. and Lee, J. (2020) ‘Testing on the move: South Korea’s rapid response to the COVID-19 pandemic’, Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, 5, p. 100111. doi: 10.1016/j.trip.2020.100111.

Leith, D. J. and Farrell, S. (2020) ‘Measurement-based evaluation of Google/Apple Exposure Notification API for proximity detection in a light-rail tram’, PLOS ONE. Edited by J. Soldani, 15(9), p. e0239943. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239943.

Lenert, L. and McSwain, B. Y. (2020) ‘Balancing health privacy, health information exchange, and research in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic’, Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 27(6), pp. 963–966. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocaa039.

Lomas, N. (2020) ‘Europe’s PEPP-PT COVID-19 contacts tracing standard push could be squaring up for a fight with Apple and Google’, TechCrunch, 18 April. Available at:

Lovejoy, B. (2020) ‘German contact tracing app using Apple/Google API to launch this week’, 15 June. Available at:

Lucivero, F. et al. (2020) ‘COVID-19 and Contact Tracing Apps: Ethical Challenges for a Social Experiment on a Global Scale’, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10016-9.

Majeed, A. et al. (2020) ‘Can the UK emulate the South Korean approach to covid-19?’, BMJ, p. m2084. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2084.

Malgieri, G. (2020) ‘The Italian COVID-19 Exposure Alert App: history and legal issues of “Immuni”’, BlogDroitEuropéen, 17 July. Available at:

Manancourt, V. (2020) ‘Coronavirus tests Europe’s resolve on privacy’, 10 March. Available at:

Mandić-Rajčević, S. et al. (2020) Contact tracing and isolation of asymptomatic spreaders to successfully control the COVID-19 epidemic among healthcare workers in Milan (Italy). preprint. Occupational and Environmental Health. doi: 10.1101/2020.05.03.20082818.

Marino, A. (2021) ‘Immuni arriva sull’AppGallery di Huawei: Gli smartphone supportati’, 30 January. Available at:

Martinez-Martin, N. et al. (2020) ‘Digital Contact Tracing, Privacy, and Public Health’, Hastings Center Report, 50(3), pp. 43–46. doi: 10.1002/hast.1131.

Ministro per l’innovazione Technologica e la Digitalizzazione (2020) ‘Nasce la task force italiana per l’utilizzo dei dati contro l’emergenza Covid-19’. Available at:

Morley, J. et al. (2020) ‘Ethical guidelines for COVID-19 tracing apps’, Nature, 582(7810), pp. 29–31. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01578-0.

Nachega, J. B. et al. (2020) ‘From Easing Lockdowns to Scaling-Up Community-Based COVID-19 Screening, Testing, and Contact Tracing in Africa – Shared Approaches, Innovations, and Challenges to Minimize Morbidity and Mortality’, Clinical Infectious Diseases, p. ciaa695. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciaa695.

zur Nedden, C. (2020) ‘Vorbild Südkorea kämpft plötzlich mit der dritten Welle’, Die Welt, 10 December. Available at:

Newton, C. (2020) ‘Why countries keep bowing to Apple and Google’s contact tracing app requirements: They who make the hardware make the rules’, The Verge, 8 May. Available at:

Nijsingh, N., van Bergen, A. and Wild, V. (2020) ‘Applying a Precautionary Approach to Mobile Contact Tracing for COVID-19: The Value of Reversibility’, Journal of Bioethical Inquiry. doi: 10.1007/s11673-020-10004-z.

Oliver, N. et al. (2020) ‘Mobile phone data for informing public health actions across the COVID-19 pandemic life cycle’, Science Advances, 6(23), p. eabc0764. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abc0764.

Otonomo (2020) What European Consumers Think about Connected Car Data and Privacy: A Consumer Survey Conducted by Otonomo and SBD Automotive. Available at:


NHS COVID-19 CONTACT TRACING APP (2020). Available at:

Park, J, and Chung, E. 2021. “Learning from Past Pandemic Governance: Early Response and Public-Private Partnerships in Testing of COVID-19 in South Korea.” World Development 137 (January): 105198.

Park, J. 2021. “Institutions Matter in Fighting COVID-19: Public Health, Social Policies and the Control Tower in South Korea.” In Greer, S. L., King, E. J., Massard da Fonseca, E., and Peralta-Santos, A. eds., Coronavirus Politics: The Comparative Politics and Policy of COVID-19. University of Michigan Press.

Park, June. 2021. “Striking a Balance between Data Privacy and Public Health Safety: A South Korean Perspective, The National Bureau of Asian Research. April 29, 2021.” Commentary from The Evolving Indo-Pacific Trade Environment, The National Bureau of Asian Research.

Park, S., Choi, G. J. and Ko, H. (2020) ‘Information Technology–Based Tracing Strategy in Response to COVID-19 in South Korea—Privacy Controversies’, JAMA, 323(21), p. 2129. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6602.

Parker, M. J. et al. (2020) ‘Ethics of instantaneous contact tracing using mobile phone apps in the control of the COVID-19 pandemic’, Journal of Medical Ethics, p. medethics-2020-106314. doi: 10.1136/medethics-2020-106314.

Personal Information Protection Act (2013) 11990. Available at:

Peto, J. (2020) ‘Covid-19 mass testing facilities could end the epidemic rapidly’, BMJ, p. m1163. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m1163.

Pollina, E. and Busvine, D. (2020) ‘European mobile operators share data for coronavirus fight’, Reuters, 18 March. Available at:

Porta, M. S. et al. (eds) (2014) A dictionary of epidemiology. Sixth edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

‘Preserving privacy while addressing COVID-19’ (2020) The Official Microsoft Blog, 20 April. Available at:

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri (2020) Immuni: An extra tool to fight the epidemic. Available at:

Rahman, M. (2020) ‘Here are the countries using Google and Apple’s COVID-19 Contact Tracing API’, XDA, 28 December. Available at:

Regulation (EU) 2016/679 (General Data Protection Regulation) (2018). Available at:

Reintjes, R. (2020) ‘Lessons in contact tracing from Germany’, BMJ, p. m2522. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2522.

Robert Koch Institute, Deutsch Telekom and SAP (no date) Corona-Warn-App Open Source Project. Available at:

Rush, D. and de La Bellière, M. (2016) European Motor Insurance Study: The rise of digitally-enabled motor insurance. Deloitte. Available at:

Sharon, T. (2020) ‘Blind-sided by privacy? Digital contact tracing, the Apple/Google API and big tech’s newfound role as global health policy makers’, Ethics and Information Technology. doi: 10.1007/s10676-020-09547-x.

‘Show evidence that apps for COVID-19 contact-tracing are secure and effective’ (2020) Nature, 580(7805), pp. 563–563. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01264-1.

Soltani, A., Calo, R. and Bergstrom, C. (2020) Contact tracing apps are not a solution to the COVID-19 crisis. Available at:

Takeuchi, K. (2020) ‘Japan readies for big Olympic crowds with high-tech precautions’, Nikkei Asia, 2 December. Available at:

Team, I. P. (2017) EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Ely: IT Governance Ltd. Available at: (Accessed: 10 June 2020).

The Washington Post (2020) ‘U.S. government, tech industry discussing ways to use smartphone location data to combat coronavirus’, 17 March. Available at:

Thompson, H. (2020) ‘France to release “more interactive” StopCovid app’, The Connexion, 13 October. Available at:

Timmer, J. (2020) ‘Google and Verily clarify their roles in the US coronavirus response’, ArsTechnica, 16 March. Available at:

Um, H. (2020) ‘[Special Report] Utilizing and Protecting Personal Graphic Imagery Information in the post-COVID-19 era = [특집기획] 포스트 코로나 시대의 개인영상정보 활용과 보호’, Boan News, 29 July. Available at:

Vandamme, A.-M. and Nguyen, T. (2020) ‘Belgium — concerns about coronavirus contact-tracing apps’, Nature, 581(7809), pp. 384–384. doi: 10.1038/d41586-020-01552-w.

Vincent, J. (2020) ‘Without Apple and Google, the UK’s contact-tracing app is in trouble’, The Verge, 5 May. Available at:

Voigt, P. and von dem Bussche, A. (2017) The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-57959-7.

Walensky, R. P. and del Rio, C. (2020) ‘From Mitigation to Containment of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Putting the SARS-CoV-2 Genie Back in the Bottle’, JAMA, 323(19), p. 1889. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6572.

Watson, I. et al. (2020) ‘How this South Korean company created coronavirus test kits in three weeks’, CNN, 13 March. Available at:

Wetsman, N. (2020) ‘Contact Tracing Apps Promised Big and Didn’t Deliver: Emphasizing privacy makes data collection difficult’, The Verge, 11 December. Available at:

Williams, S. N. et al. (2021) ‘Public attitudes towards COVID‐19 contact tracing apps: A UK‐based focus group study’, Health Expectations, p. hex.13179. doi: 10.1111/hex.13179.

Yap, K. Y.-L. and Xie, Q. (2020) ‘Personalizing symptom monitoring and contact tracing efforts through a COVID-19 web-app’, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 9(1), p. 93. doi: 10.1186/s40249-020-00711-5.

Yasaka, T. M., Lehrich, B. M. and Sahyouni, R. (2020) ‘Peer-to-Peer Contact Tracing: Development of a Privacy-Preserving Smartphone App’, JMIR mHealth and uHealth, 8(4), p. e18936. doi: 10.2196/18936.

Yoon, J. (2020) Tracking the movement of confirmed patients within 10 minutes…the COVID-19 Smart Management System that grabbed the world’s attention = 10분내 확진자 동선추적…세계가 주목한 코로나 역학조사 시스템)’, Yonhap News, 10 April. Available at:

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.