ساخت اپلیکیشن

Discourses and Practices of Radical Democracy. The 15M movement as a space of mobilization


Social movements are builders of what are known as “grammars of democracy”, that is, values, participatory experiences, political cultures, languages and structures for articulating demands. This article analyses the 15M or indignados (outraged) movement in Spain; a collective action that went beyond classical protests in response to the economic crisis and proposed changes in democratic practices. Social movements, particularly from the 1990s onwards, have focused on democracy as both a means and an end in order to address what they perceive as authoritarian globalization. The article approaches 15M mainly as a space for mobilization articulating the heterogeneity of the movement as well as its effects in Spain (anti-eviction struggles, PAH, social tides, etc.) with a direct reference to the master frame of 'radical democracy'. Methodologically, this work is based upon interviews, focus groups and participant observation conducted from May 2011 to June 2012 during the occupation of public squares and subsequent mobilizations. The text situates this phenomenon in the core of the New Global Movements, and connects it with a decade of similar collective actions in Spain and other parts of the world. Finally, aspects such as the role of the Internet as a tool for and driving force of new models of democracy and the scale of assemblies in relation to deliberative democracy are also discussed.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v11i2p571

Keywords: 15-M , democracy, indignados, New Global Movements, protests


Abellán, J. (2008). “El concepto moderno de democracia”. In García Moreno, L. A. y Tortella, G. (eds.), La democracia ayer y hoy. Madrid: Gadir.

Barber, B. (1984). Strong Democracy: Participatory Politics for a New Age. New Jersey: University of California Press.

Botella Ordinas, E. (2011). “La democracia directa de la Puerta del Sol”. La vie des idées.fr

Calle, A. (2005). Los nuevos movimientos globales. Hacia la radicalidad democrática. Madrid: Editorial Popular.

Calle, A. (2009). “Democracia en movimiento”. Revista Académica de Relaciones Internacionales, 12, 1-24.

Calle, A. (ed). (2011). Democracia Radical. Entre vínculos y utopías. Barcelona: Icaria.

Calle, A. (2013). La Transición inaplazable y el 15M. Los nuevos sujetos políticos para salir de la crisis. Barcelona: Icaria.

Calvo Borobia, K.; Gómez-Pastrana, T.; Jiménez Sánchez, M. and

Mena, L. (2011). “Especial 15M. Colección Zoom Político”. Laboratorio de Alternativas. Fundación Alternativas.

Candón Mena, J. (2011). “La batalla de la agenda: De las redes sociales a la agenda mediática, política y electoral”. Actas del V Congreso Periodismo en Red, Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid: 217-227.

Candón-Mena, J. (2013). Toma la calle, toma las redes: El movimiento 15M en Internet. Sevilla: Atrapasueños. https://idus.us.es/xmlui/handle/11441/26074

Castells, M. (2006). La Sociedad Red. Una visión Global. Madrid: Alianza.

Castells, M. (2009). Communication power. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.

Castoriadis, C. (1975). L'institution imaginaire de la société. Paris: Seuil.

CIS (2009). Estudio n.º 2.790, Calidad de la democracia (II). Febrero-Marzo 2009. http://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/2_bancodatos/estudios/listaMuestras.jsp?estudio=9922

Cohen, J. (1989) "Deliberative Democracy and Democratic Legitimacy," in Hamlin, A.and Pettit, P. (eds), The Good Polity. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 17–34.

Della Porta, D. (2005a). “Deliberation in Movement: Why and How to Study Delibera-tive Democracy and Social Movements”, Acta Politica, vol. 40,, pp. 336-350.

Della Porta, D. (2005b). “Making the Polis: Social Forums and Democracy in the Global Justice Movement”, Mobilization, vol. 10, no. 1, 2005b, pp. 73-94.

Della Porta, D. and Diani, M. (2006). Social Movements. An introduction. MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Della Porta, D. (ed.). (2007). The Global Justice Movement. Cross

National and Transnational perspectives. Boulder CO: Paradigm.

Della Porta, D. (2012). “Mobilizing Against the Crisis, Mobilizing for Another Democra-cy: Comparing Two Global Waves of Protest”. Interface: A journal for and about social movements 4 (1), 274-277.

Della Porta, D. (2013). Can Democracy Be Saved? Participation, Deliberation and Social Movements. Londres: Polity.

Díez, R. and Laraña, E. (2017). Democracia, dignidad y movimientos sociales : el surgimiento de la cultura cívica y la irrupción de los «indignados» en la vida pública. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

Dryzek, J. S. (2000). Deliberative Democracy and Beyond. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Dryzek, J. S. (2010) Foundations and Frontiers of Deliberative Governance. Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Elster, J. (1998). “Deliberation and Constitution Making”. In Elster, J. (ed.) Deliberative Democracy. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp. 97–122

Feixa, P., Juris, J. And Pereira, I.(2009). “Global citizenship and the ‘New, New’ social movements: Iberian connections”, Young 17:4 : 421–442.

Flesher Fominaya, C. (2017). “European anti-austerity and pro-democr.acy protests in the wake of the global financial crisis”. Social Movement Studies, 16: 1, 1-20.

Flesher Fominaya, C. (2015). Debunking Spontaneity: Spain’s 15M/Indignados as Au-tonomous Movement. Social Movement Studies, 14: 2, 142-163.

Fotopoulos, T. (1997). Towards an Inclusive Democracy: The Crisis of the Growth Econ-omy and the Need for a New Liberatory Project. London & New York: Cassell.

Gerbaudo, P. (2017). The Mask and the Flag. Populism, Citizenism and Global Protest. London: Hurst Publishers.

Giner, S. (2008). Historia del Pensamiento Social. Barcelona: Ariel.

Giugni, M.; McAdam, D. and Tilly, Ch. (eds.). (1998). From Contention to Democracy. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.

Habermas, Jürgen (1987). The Theory of Communicative Action Volume II: System and Lifeworld. Boston: Beacon Press.

Habermas, Jürgen (1998): "Política deliberativa: un concepto procedimental de democracia", cap. VII de Facticidad y validez, Madrid: Trotta, 363-406.

Harvey, D. (2007). Espacios del capital. Hacia una Geografía Crítica. Madrid: Akal.

Held, D. (1992). Modelos de democracia. Madrid: Alianza.

Hessel, S. (2011). ¡Indignaos! Madrid: Destino.

Ibarra, P.; Martí, S. and Goma, R. (2002) Creadores de democracia radical. Movimientos sociales y redes de politicas públicas. Barcelona: Icaria.

Jiménez, M. and Calle, A. (2007) “The Global Justice Movement in Spain”, in Della Porta, D. (coord.) The Global Justice Movement: Cross-national and Transnational Perspectives. Nueva York: Paradigm Publishers.

Johnson, S. (2003). Sistemas Emergentes. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Juris, J. (2006). “Movimientos sociales en red: movimientos globales por una justicia global”, in Castells, M. La Sociedad Red. Una visión Global. Madrid: Alianza.

Klein, N. (2011). “Occupy Wall Street: The Most Important Thing in the World Now”. The Nation, October 6th.

Laclau, E. and Mouffe, C. (1985). Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Toward a Radical Democratic Politics. 2nd Edition. London: Verso.

Lawrence, J. (2013). The international roots of the 99% and the “politics of anyone”. IC- Revista Científica de Información y Comunicación, 10, pp. 53-72.

Lévy, P. (2007). Cibercultura. La cultura de la sociedad digital. Rubí, Barcelona: An-thropos.

Macpherson, C. B. (1977). The Life and Times of Liberal Democracy. Nueva York: Oxford University Press.

Maeckelbergh, M. (2012). “Horizontal Democracy Now: From Alter-globalization to Occupation”. Interface: A journal for and about social movements, 4 (1), 207-234.

Mansbridge, J. (1983). Beyond adversary democracy. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Mansbridge, J. (1996). “Using Power / Fighting Power: The Polity”. In Ben-habib, S. (ed.) Democracy and Difference: Contesting the Boundaries of the Political. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 46–66.

Markoff, J. (1996). Waves of Democracy: Social Movements and Political Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.

McCarthy, J.; Zald, M. and McAdam, D. (eds.). (1999). Movimientos sociales. Perspectivas comparadas. Madrid: Istmo.

Melucci, A. (1999). Acción colectiva, vida cotidiana y democracia. México: El Colegio de México.

Melucci, A. and Avritzer, L. (2000). “Complexity, Cultural Pluralism and Democracy: Collective Action in the Public Space”. Social Science Information, 39, 507-527.

Mouffe, C. (1999). El retorno de lo político. Comunidad,

ciudadanía, plu-ralismo, democracia radical. Barcelona: Paidós.

Mouffe, C. (2005). On the political. London: Routledge.

Offe, C. (1985). “New Social Movements: Changing Boundaries of the Political”. Social Research, 52, 817-868.

Pateman, C. (1970). Participation and Democratic Theory. Cambridge: University Press.

Perugorría, I. and Tejerina, B. (2014). "Synchronizing Identities: Crafting the Space of Mobilization in the Spanish 15M" in Petropoulos N.P. and Tsobanoglou, G. O. (eds.) The Debt Crisis in the Eurozone. Social Impacts. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle.

Perugorria, I. and Tejerina, B. (2018). “Identity in the move: between emotional and relational processes of mobilization”. In

Tejerina, B. y Perugorría, I. (eds.). Crisis and Social Mobilization in Contemporary Spain: The 15M Movement. London: Routledge, pp. 36-53.

Rheingold, H. (2004). Multitudes Inteligentes. Barcelona: Gedisa.

Robles, J. M. and Ganuza, E. (2011). “Internet y Deliberación. Dos ideas para comprender cómo afrontan los Indignados la participación política”, Sociedad y Utopía. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, nº 38, pp. 243-262.

Romanos, E. (2011). “El 15M y la democracia de los movimientos sociales”. La vie des idées.fr

Romanos, E. (2016). “De Tahrir a Wall Street por la Puerta del Sol: la difusión transnacional de los movimientos sociales en perspectiva comparada”. Revista Española de Investigaciones Sociológicas, 154, pp. 103-118.2

Romanos, E. (2018). “Del 68 al 15M: Continuidades y Rupturas entre Ciclos de Protesta. Arbor. Ciencia, Pensamiento y Cultura Vol. 194-787, enero-marzo 2018, a430.

Sousa Santos, B. (2016). La difícil democracia. Una mirada desde la periferia Europea. Madrid: Akal.

Subirats, J. (2012). Otra sociedad, ¿otra política? Del no nos representan a la democracia de lo común. Barcelona: Icaria.

Tilly, Ch. (2007). Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Vallespín, F. (1998). “El discurso de la democracia radical”. In Águila. R. del; Gabriel, J. A. de; García, E.; Rivero, A. y Vallespín, F.(eds.), La democracia en sus textos. Madrid: Alianza.

Weber, M. (1976). El Orden en la Diversidad: Comunidad sin Proximidad, in Ciudades y espacio: El uso futuro del suelo urbano. Oikos-Tau.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.