ساخت اپلیکیشن

From Super-Participants to Super-Echoed. Participation in the 2018 Italian Electoral Twittersphere


Abstract


Who and how takes part in a typical Twitter discussion about political elections? In what degree? In our study we try to shed some light on these questions by examining the case of Italian 2018 national election. Starting from the database that we collected during the latest general campaign, we analyse all the users who participated in the discussion unfolding in the two months preceding the vote. To do that, we exploit the concept of super-participants isolating the 1% of users who generate large part of the discussion. We study them identifying the two main participation flows in the Twittersphere generated by tweets and retweets, discovering that participation curves are very skewed. To address issues of centrality and inclusiveness in online communication, we look at who the super-participants are in the broader society, finding that many of them are citizens. To inquire if participation draws attention, we identify a set of super-echoed users discovering that, belonging to élite categories is still an advantage given that starting popularity is often more important to be shared than participation. In fact, citizens’ super-participation is not mirrored by an equally consistent received attention. Notwithstanding, political supporters and satirical blogs emerge to be two very interesting categories.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v11i2p361

Keywords: electoral campaign; super-participants; super-echoed; participation inequality; Twitter; 1% rule

References


Aleahmad A., P. Karisani, M. Rahgozar, and F. Oroumchian (2016), "OLFinder: Finding opinion leaders in online social networks", Journal of Information Science, 42(5): 659-674.

Anstead N., B. O’Loughlin (2011), “The Emerging Viewertariat and BBC Question Time: Television Debate and Real-Time Commenting Online”, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 16(4): 440 -462.

Ausserhofer J., A. Maireder (2013), “National Politics on Twitter”, Information, Communication & Society, 16(3): 291–314.

Bakshy E., J. M. Hofman, W. A. Mason, and D. J. Watts (2011), “Everyone's an influencer: quantifying influence on Twitter”, Proceedings of the fourth ACM international conference on Web search and data mining, ACM, New York, USA, pp. 65-74.

Barberá P., G. Rivero (2015), “Understanding the Political Representativeness of Twitter Users”, Social Science Computer Review, 33(6): 712–729.

Bastos M. T., R. Raimundo, and R. Travitzki (2013) “Gatekeeping Twitter: message diffusion in political hashtags”, Media, Culture & Society, 35(2): 260–270.

Bentivegna S., R. Marchetti (2015), "Live tweeting a political debate: The case of the ‘Italia bene comune’", European Journal of Communication, 30(6): 631-647.

Berglez P. (2016), “Few-to-many communication: Public figures’ self-promotion on Twitter through “joint performances” in small networked constellations”, Annales-Anali za Istrske in Mediteranske Studije - Series Historia et Sociologia, 26(1): 171–184.

Bodrunova S.S., A. Litvinenko, and I. Blekanov (2016), “Influencers on the Russian Twitter: institutions vs. people in the discussion on migrants”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Electronic Governance and Open Society: Challenges in Eurasia (EGOSE '16), ACM, New York, USA, pp. 212-222.

Bodrunova S.S., A. Litvinenko, and I. Blekanov (2017), “Comparing Influencers: Activity vs. Connectivity Measures in Defining Key Actors in Twitter Ad Hoc Discussions on Migrants in Germany and Russia”, in G. Ciampaglia, A. Mashhad, T. Yasseri (eds.), Social Informatics, Cham: Springer, pp. 360-376.

boyd d., K. Crawford (2012), “Critical questions for big data: Provocations for a cultural, technological, and scholarly phenomenon”, Information Communication and Society, 15(5): 662–679.

boyd d., S. Golder, and G. Lotan (2010), “Tweet, tweet, retweet: Conversational aspects of retweeting on twitter”, in System Sciences (HICSS), 2010 43rd Hawaii International Conference, IEEE, pp. 1-10.

Boulianne S. (2015), “Social media use and participation: a meta-analysis of current research”, Information, Communication & Society, 18(5): 524-538.

Bracciale R., Cepernich C. (2018), “Hybrid 2018 campaigning: Italian political leaders and parties social media habits”, IPS-Italian Political Science, 13(1): 1-15.

Bracciale R., A. Martella (2016), "Tweeting habits of Italian media outlets", Problemi dell'informazione, 41(3): 505-540.

Bracciale R., R. Rega (2016), "Political Information on Twitter: #elezioni2013 and the role of gatekeeper citizens", in O. G. Luengo (eds.), Political Communication in Times of Crisis, Berlin: Logos, pp. 209-225.

Bruns A., J.E. Burgess (2011), "The use of Twitter hashtags in the formation of ad hoc publics", in Proceedings of the 6th European Consortium for Political Research (ECPR) General Conference, University of Iceland, Reykjavik.

Bruns A., S. Stieglitz (2013), “Towards more systematic Twitter analysis: metrics for tweeting activities”, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 16(2): 91-108.

Cha M., H. Haddadi, F. Benevenuto, and P. Gummadi (2010), “Measuring user influence in twitter: The million follower fallacy”, in Icwsm, 10, pp. 10-17.

Crawford K. (2009), “Following you: Disciplines of listening in social media”, Continuum, 23(4): 525-535.

D’heer E., P. Verdegem (2014), “Conversations about the elections on Twitter: Towards a structural understanding of Twitter’s relation with the political and the media field”, European Journal of Communication, 29(6): 720-734.

Dang-Xuan L., S. Stieglitz, J. Wladarsch, and C. Neuberger (2013), “An Investigation of Influentials and the Role of Sentiment in Political Communication on Twitter during Election Periods”, Information, Communication & Society, 16(5): 795-825.

Davis A. (2010), “New media and fat democracy: the paradox of online participation”, New Media & Society, 12(5): 745–761.

Di Fraia G., M.C. Missaglia (2015), "Two step flow Twitter communication in 2013 Italian political election: A missed opportunity for citizen participation", in Frame A., G. Brachotte (eds.), Citizen Participation and Political Communication in a Digital World, New York: Routledge, pp. 43-59.

Dubois, E., D. Gaffney (2014), “The Multiple Facets of Influence”, American Behavioral Scientist, 58(10): 1260–1277.

Elmer G. (2013), “Live research: Twittering an election debate”, New Media & Society, 15(1): 18–30.

Freelon D. (2014), “On the Interpretation of Digital Trace Data in Communication and Social Computing Research”, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 58(1): 59-75.

Freelon D., D. Karpf (2015), “Of big birds and bayonets: hybrid Twitter interactivity in the 2012 Presidential debates”, Information, Communication & Society, 18(4): 390–406.

Gerbaudo P. (2012), Tweets and the Streets: Social Media and Contemporary Activism, London: Pluto Press.

Gil de Zúñiga H., T. Diehl (2017), “Citizenship, Social Media, and Big Data: Current and Future Research in the Social Sciences”, Social Science Computer Review, 35(1): 3-9.

González-Bailón S. (2013), "Social Science in the Era of Big Data", Policy and Internet, 5(2): 147-160.

González-Bailón S., J. Borge-Holthoefer, and Y. Moreno (2013), "Broadcasters and hidden influentials in online protest diffusion", American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7): 943-965.

Graham T., S. Wright (2014a), “Discursive Equality and Everyday Talk Online: The Impact of “Superparticipants””, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19(3): 625-642.

Graham T., S. Wright (2014b), "Analysing ‘Super-Participation’ in Online Third Spaces", in M. Cantijoch, R. Gibson, and S. Ward (eds.), Analyzing Social Media Data and Web Networks, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 197-215.

Greffet F., S. Wojcik (2017), “Exploring online participation. The case of the 2012 French presidential election campaign”, Comunicazione politica, 2017(1): 3-30.

Haklay M. (2016), “Why is participation inequality important?”, in C. Capineri, M. Haklay, H. Huang, V. Antoniou, J. Kettunen, F. Ostermann, and R. Purves (eds.), European handbook of crowdsourced geographic information, London: Ubiquity Press, pp. 35-44.

Halpern D., S. Valenzuela, and J. E. Katz (2017), "We Face, I Tweet: How Different Social Media Influence Political Participation through Collective and Internal Efficacy", Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 22(6): 320-336.

Hargittai E., G. Walejko (2008), “The participation divide: Content creation and sharing in the digital age”, Information Communication and Society, 11(2): 239-256.

Hawthorne J., J. Houston, and M. McKinney (2013), “Live-Tweeting a Presidential Primary Debate: Exploring New Political Conversations”, Social Science Computer Review, 31(5): 552-562.

Hayes A. F., K. Krippendorff (2007), "Answering the call for a standard reliability measure for coding data", Communication methods and measures, 1(1): 77-89.

Highfield T., S. Harrington, and A. Bruns (2013), “Twitter as a Technology for Audiencing and Fandom”, Information, Communication & Society, 16(3): 315-339.

Hosch-Dayican B., C. Amrit, K. Aarts, and A. Dassen (2016), "How Do Online Citizens Persuade Fellow Voters? Using Twitter During the 2012 Dutch Parliamentary Election Campaign", Social Science Computer Review, 34(2): 135-152.

Howison J., A. Wiggins, and K. Crowston (2011), "Validity Issues in the Use of Social Network Analysis with Digital Trace Data", Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(12): 2.

Jungherr A. (2015), Analyzing Political Communication with Digital Trace Data, Cham: Springer.

Jungherr A., H. Schoen, O. Posegga, and P. Jurgens (2016), "Digital Trace Data in the Study of Public Opinion: An Indicator of Attention Toward Politics Rather Than Political Support", Social Science Computer Review, 35(3): 336-356.

Jürgens, P., A. Jungherr (2015), "The use of Twitter during the 2009 German national election", German Politics, 24(4): 469-490.

Katz E., P.F. Lazarsfeld (1955), Personal Influence: The Part Played by People in the Flow of Mass Communications, New York: Free Press.

Krzyżanowski M, J.A. Tucker (2018), "Re/constructing politics through social & online media - Discourses, ideologies, and mediated political practices", Journal of Language and Politics, 17(2): 141 -154.

Larsson A.O., H. Moe (2012), “Studying political microblogging: Twitter users in the 2010 Swedish election campaign”, New Media & Society, 14(5): 729–747.

Larsson A.O., H. Moe (2013), “Representation or Participation?”, Javnost - The Public, 20(1): 71–88.

Leavitt A., E. Burchard, D. Fisher, and S. Gilbert (2009), "The influentials: New approaches for analyzing influence on Twitter", Web Ecology Project, 4(2): 1-18.

Lee C., H. Kwak, H. Park, and S. Moon (2010), “Finding influentials based on the temporal order of information adoption in Twitter”, in M. Rappa, P. Jones, J. Freire, and S. Chakrabarti (eds.), WWW 10: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web, New York: ACM, pp. 1137–1138.

Maireder A., B.E. Weeks, H. Gil de Zúñiga, and S. Schlögl (2017), "Big data and political social networks: Introducing audience diversity and communication connector bridging measures in social network theory", Social Science Computer Review, 35(1): 126-141.

Marchetti R., D. Ceccobelli (2016), "Twitter and television in a hybrid media system: the 2013 Italian election campaign", Journalism Practice, 10(5): 626-644.

Meraz S., Z. Papacharissi (2013), “Networked gatekeeping and networked framing on #Egypt”, The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2): 138-166.

Mingo I., R. Bracciale (2018), "The Matthew effect in the Italian digital context: the progressive marginalisation of the “poor”", Social Indicators Research, 135(2): 629-659.

Mustafaraj E., S. Finn, C. Whitlock, and P. T. Metaxas (2011), "Vocal Minority versus Silent Majority: Discovering the Opinions of the Long Tail", 2011 IEEE Third International Conference on Privacy, Security, Risk and Trust, Boston, USA.

Nielsen J. (2006), The 90-9-1 Rule for Participation Inequality in Social Media and Online Communities. Revised June 26, 2018

(https://www.nngroup.com/articles/participation-inequality/).

Nisbet E., E. Stoycheff, and K. Pearce (2012), “Internet Use and Democratic Demands: A Multinational, Multilevel Model of Internet Use and Citizen Attitudes About Democracy”, Journal of Communication, 62(2): 249-265.

Poushter J., C. Bishop, and H. Chwe (2018), “Social Media Use Continues To Rise in Developing Countries, but Plateaus Across Developed Ones”, Pew Research Center.

Small T. A. (2011), “What the hashtag? A content analysis of Canadian politics on Twitter”, Information, Communication & Society, 14(6): 872-895.

Sousa D., L. Sarmento, and E. Mendes Rodrigues (2010), “Characterization of the twitter @replies network: are user ties social or topical?”, in Proceedings of the 2nd international workshop on search and mining user-generated contents, ACM, New York, USA, pp. 63-70.

Subbian K., P. Melville (2011), “Supervised rank aggregation for predicting influence in networks”, in PASSAT 2011: IEEE 3rd international conference on privacy, security and trust, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, pp. 661–665.

Theocharis, Y. (2015), "The Conceptualization of Digitally Networked Participation", Social Media + Society, 1(2): 1-14.

Trilling D. (2015), “Two Different Debates? Investigating the Relationship Between a Political Debate on TV and Simultaneous Comments on Twitter”, Social Science Computer Review, 33(3): 259-276.

Vaccari C., A. Valeriani (2015), "Follow the leader! Direct and indirect flows of political communication during the 2013 Italian general election campaign", New Media & Society, 17(7): 1025-1042.

Vaccari C., A. Valeriani, P. Barberá, R. Bonneau, J. T. Jost, J. Nagler, and J. A. Tucker (2015), "Political Expression and Action on Social Media: Exploring the Relationship Between Lower- and Higher-Threshold Political Activities Among Twitter Users in Italy", Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 20(2): 221–239.

Wright S. (2017), “The impact of “super-participants” on everyday political talk”, Journal of Language and Politics, 17(2): 155-172.

Wright S., T. Graham, Y. Sun, W. Wang, X. Luo, and A. Carson (2016), “Analysing everyday online political talk in China: Theoretical and methodological reflections”, Communication, Politics & Culture, 49(1): 39-61.

Xu W., Y. Sang, S. Blasiola, and H. Park (2014), "Predicting opinion leaders in Twitter activism networks: The case of the Wisconsin recall election", American Behavioral Scientist, 58(10): 1278-1293.

Zhao, X. W., J. Wang, Y. He, J. Nie, and X. Li (2014), "Originator or propagator? Incorporating social role theory into topic models for twitter content analysis", in Proceedings of the 22nd ACM International Conference on Information & Knowledge Management, ACM, pp. 1649-1654.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.