ساخت اپلیکیشن

Neither Completely Political nor Completely Unpolitical. The Third Way of Deliberative Arenas


Abstract


Sometimes governments choose to include ordinary people at some stage of the policy making process by setting up temporary and structured arenas where participants are put in a posi-tion whereby they can deliberate on public issues and make decisions or propose suggestions. Do such deliberative arenas depoliticize democracy, as a vast amount of literature suggests? This article is aimed at challenging this point of view, by giving a close look at two cases of democratic experi-mentation. An analysis of what actually happens in those venues shows that such arenas appear to display, at the same time, both unpolitical and political features. On one hand, they are non-majoritarian bodies, just like other depoliticized venues, but on the other, they deal with conflicts and discuss goals, and thus perform typical political activities. It is possible to say that they are nei-ther completely political nor completely unpolitical. They instead have a hybrid nature that can coun-teract the continuous fluctuations between (hyper)politicization and (hyper)depoliticization that are so typical of our times. This implies a revision of the standard theory of politicization/depoliticization that does not consider the possibility of gray areas. Overcoming the rigid opposition between the two terms of the dichotomy can lead to the discovery of some interesting possibilities that often tend to be overlooked.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20356609v10i2p613

Keywords: deliberative arenas; deliberative democracy; depoliticization; minipublics; public de-bate

References


Abram S. (2007), “Participatory Depoliticization: the Bleeding Heart of Neo-liberalism”, in C. Neveu (ed), Espace public et engagement politique, Paris: L’Harmattan, pp. 113-134.

Algostino A. (2008), “L’Osservatorio per il collegamento ferroviario Torino-Lione come case study sulla democrazia e sul dissenso”, Democrazia e diritto, 2: 231-253.

Baiocchi, G. and E. Ganuza (2015), “Becoming a Best Practice. Neoliberalism and the Curious Case of Participatory Budget”, in W. C. Lee, M. McQuarrie, E.T. Walker (eds) (2015), Democratizing inequalities: dilemmas of the new public participation, New York: New York University Press, pp. 187-203.

Bevir M. (2010), Democratic Governance, Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Bobbio, L. (2003), “Building Social Capital Through Democratic Deliberation: the Rise of Deliberative Arenas”, Social Epistemology, 17(4): 343-357.

Bobbio, L. (2010), “Il dibattito pubblico sulle grandi opere. Il caso dell’autostrada di Genova”, Rivista italiana di politiche pubbliche, 1: 119-146.

Bobbio, L. (forthcoming), “Designing effective public participation”, Policy & Society.

Bobbio, L. and P. Melé (2015), “Les relations paradoxales entre conflit et participation”, Participations, 5(3): 7-33.

Burnham, P. (2001), “New Labour and the Politics of Depoliticisation”, British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 3(2): 127–49.

Chambers, S. (2004), “Behind Closed Doors: Publicity, Secrecy, and the Quality of Deliberation”, Journal of Political Philosophy, 12(4): 389–410.

Cini, L. (2012), Società civile e democrazia radicale, Florence: Firenze University Press.

Clarke, J. (2010), “Enrolling ordinary people: governmental strategies and the avoidance of politics?”, Citizenship Studies, 14 (6): 637–650.

Elster, J. (1998), “Introduction”, in J. Elster (ed), Deliberative Democracy, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-18.

Flinders, M. and J. Buller (2006), “Depoliticisation: Principles, tactics and tools”, British Politics, 1(3): 293-318.

Flinders, M. and M. Wood (2014), “Depoliticisation, governance and the state”, Policy & Politics, 42(2): 135-149.

Flinders, M. and M. Wood (2015), “When Politics Fails: Hyper- Democracy and Hyper-Depoliticization”, New Political Science, 37(3): 363-381.

Fourniau, J.-M. (2001), “Information, Access to Decision-making and Public Debate in France: the Growing Demand for Deliberative Democracy”, Science and Public Policy, 28(6): 441-445.

Freschi, A.C. and V. Mete (2009), “The Political Meanings of Institutional Deliberative Experiments. Findings on the Italian Case”, Sociologica, 3(2-3). Retrieved May 24, 2017 (www.sociologica.mulino.it/journal/issue/index/Issue/Journal:ISSUE:8)

Fung, A. (2003), «Survey article: Recipes for public spheres: Eight institutional design choices and their consequences», The Journal of Political Philosophy, 11(3): 338-367.

Gourgues G., S. Rui and S. Topçu (2013), “Gouvernementalité et participation. Lectures critiques”, Participations, 6: 5-33.

Grönlund, K., A. Bächtinger and M. Setälä (eds) (2014), Deliberative Mini-Public. Involving Citizens in the Democratic Process, Colchester: Ecpr Press.

Habermas, J. (1996), Between Facts and Norms. Contrbutes to a Discursive Theory of Law and Democracy, Cambgidge: MIT Press.

Hay, C. (2007), Why We Hate Politics, Cambridge MA, Polity Press.

Hay, C. (2014), “Depoliticisation as process, governance as practice: what did the 'first wave' get wrong and do we need a 'second wave' to put it right?”, Policy & Politics, 42(2): 293-311.

Hendriks, C. M. (2016), «Coupling citizens and elites in deliberative systems: The role of institutional design», European Journal of Political Research, 55(1). 43-60.

Ieraci, G. (1994), “Genova: bretella Voltri-Rivarolo”, in Archivio Isap n. 7, Le decisioni di opera pubblica e di urbanistica nelle città, Milano: Giuffrè, pp. 581-616.

Jenkins, L. (2011), “The difference genealogy makes: Strategies for politicisation or how to extend capacities for autonomy”, Political Studies, 59(1): 156-174.

Jessop, B. (2014), “Repoliticising depoliticisation: theoretical preliminaries on some responses to the American fiscal and Eurozone debt crises”, Policy & Politics, 42(2): 207-223.

Joly P. B. and C. Marris (2003), “La participation contre la mobilisation ? Une analyse comparée du débat sur les OGM en France et au Royaume-Uni”, Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée, 10(2): 195-206.

Krippner, G. (2011), Capitalizing on crisis, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Landemore, H. (2013), Democratic Reason: Politics, Collective Intelligence, and the Rule of the Many, Princenton: Princeton University Press.

Lolive, J. (1999), Les contestations du TGV méditerranée: projet, controverse et espace public, Paris: L'Harmattan.

Majone, G. (2001), “Nonmajoritarian Institutions and the Limits of Democratic Governance”, Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics, 157(1): 57–78.

Marshall, T. (2016), “Learning from France: using public deliberation to tackle infrastructure planning issues”, International Planning Studies, 21(4): 329-347.

Martí, J. L. (2006), “The epistemic conception of deliberative democracy defended : reasons, rightness and equal political autonomy”, in S. Besson and J. L. Martí (eds), Deliberative Democracy and Its Discontents, Ashgate, pp. 27-56.

McDonnell, D., and M. Valbruzzi (2014), “Defining and classifying technocrat‐led and technocratic governments”, European Journal of Political Research, 53(4): 654-671.

Mercier, H. and H. Landemore (2012), “Reasoning Is for Arguing: Understanding the Successes and Failures of Deliberation”, Political Psychology, 33 (2): 243-258.

Mermet, L. (2007), “Débattre sans savoir pourquoi : la polychrésie du débat public appelle le pluralisme théorique de la part des chercheurs”, in M. Revel, C. Blatrix, L. Blondiaux, J.-M. Fourniau, B. H. Dubreuil, R. Lefebvre (eds), Le débat public : une expérience française de démocratie participative, Paris: La Découverte, pp. 369-380.

Moini, G. (2011), «How participation has become a hegemonic discursive resource: towards an interpretivist research agenda», Critical Policy Studies, 5(2): 149-168.

Mouffe, Ch. (2005), On the political, Abington: Routledge.

Olsen, E. D., and H.J. Trenz (2014), “From Citizens' Deliberation to Popular Will Formation? Generating Democratic Legitimacy in Transnational Deliberative Polling”, Political Studies, 62(1 suppl): 117-133.

Parkinson, J. (2006), Deliberation in the real world. Problems of Legitimacy in Deliberative Democracy, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Parkinson, J. and J. Mansbridge (eds) (2012), Deliberative Systems : Deliberative Democracy at the Large Scale, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Pellizzoni, L. (2013), “Une idée sur le déclin ? Evaluer la nouvelle critique de la délibération publique”, Participations, 3(2): 87-118.

Pettit, Ph. (2004), “Depoliticizing Democracy”, Ratio Juris, 17(1): 52–65.

Polletta, F. (2015), “Public deliberation and political contention”, in C.W. Lee, M. McQuarrie, E.T. Walker (eds), Democratizing Inequalities: Dilemmas of the New Public Participation, New York: New York University Press, pp. 222-245.

Pomatto, G. (2011), Gioco strategico e deliberazione. Il dibattito pubblico sulla Gronda di Genova, Torino: SPS University Press.

Pucci, P. (ed) (2010), “Il dibattito sulla Gronda di Ponente a Genova”, Urbanistica, 142: 69-93.

Revel, M. , C. Blatrix, L. Blondiaux, J-M. Fourniau, B.H. Dubreuil, and R. Lefebvre (eds) (2007), Le débat public : une expérience française de démocratie participative, Paris: La Découverte.

Setälä, M. (2017), «Connecting deliberative mini‐publics to representative decision making», European Journal of Political Research: 1-18.

Sintomer, Y., C. Herzberg, G. Allegretti, and A. Röcke (2010) Learning from the South: participatory budgeting worldwide. Retrieved May 14, 2017 (https://www.buergerhaushalt.org/sites/default/files/downloads/LearningfromtheSouth-ParticipatoryBudgetingWorldwide-Study_0.pdf)

Urbinati, N. (2010), “Unpolitical democracy”, in Political Theory, 38(1): 65–92.

Urbinati, N. (2014), Democracy disfigured, Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Walker, E. T., M. McQuarry, and W.C. Lee (2015), “Rising Participation and Declining De-mocracy”, in W.C. Lee, M. McQuarrie, and E.T.

Walker (eds) (2015), Democratizing in-equalities: dilemmas of the new public participation, New York: New York University Press, pp. 3-23.

Warren, M. E. and H. Pearse (eds) (2008). Designing Deliberative Democracy: The British Columbia Citizens’ Assembly. New York: Cambridge University Press.

White, J., and L. Ypi (2011), “On partisan political justification”, American Political Science Review, 105(02): 381-396.

Wood, M., and M. Flinders (2014), “Rethinking depoliticisation: Beyond the governmental”, Policy & Politics, 42(2): 151-170.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.