A moderation and mediation model for customer revisit intention to non-Halal certified restaurants


Muslims normally  choose Halal-certified  restaurants, as they are obligated to  eat  Halal  (permissible  to  consume)  foods only.   However,  long-running food outlets  run  by non-Muslims,  or restaurants without  the  Halal logo, or even  those  considered  as non-Halal  are  still  popular  among  Muslims.   By adopting  a stimulus-organism-response model, this study  identified the atti- tudinal factors  influencing Muslims to revisit  a restaurant. Using purposive sampling  and  a self-administered survey  questionnaire, data  were collected from major shopping  complexes in Kuala  Lumpur  and Putrajaya. The find- ings revealed that service quality  and image positively affected attitude, and that attitude positively affected revisit intention. Attitude was also found to mediate the relationship between service quality  and image, and service qual- ity and revisit intention. Meanwhile, food quality  had a moderating effect on the relationship between  attitude and revisit  intention. The findings of this study  will benefit many parties,  especially restaurateurs—whether operating Halal-certified  restaurants or otherwise—locally  and globally.

DOI Code: 10.1285/i20705948v16n1p122

Keywords: SOR Model, Moderation, Mediation, Service Quality, Food quality, Attitude, Image, non-Halal certified restaurants


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T

Akter, S., D’Ambra, J., and Ray, P. (2013). Development and validation of an instrument to measure user perceived service quality of mHealth. Information and Management, 50(4), 181–195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2013.03.001

Ariffin, S. K., Shah, K. A. M., and Ismail, I. (2016). Muslim consumers’ attitudes toward the advertisement of non-certified coffee shops. Jurnal Pengurusan, 48.

Baron, R. M., and Kenny, D. A. (1986). The Moderator-Mediator Variable Distinction in Social Psychological Research: Conceptual, Strategic, and Statistical Considerations. In Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (Vol. 51).

Bujisic, M., Hutchinson, J., and Parsa, H. G. (2014). The effects of restaurant quality attributes on customer behavioral intentions. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 26(8), 1270–1291. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2013-0162

Cheah, J. H., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Ramayah, T., and Ting, H. (2018). Convergent validity assessment of formatively measured constructs in PLS-SEM: On using single-item versus multi-item measures in redundancy analyses. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(11), 3192–3210. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2017-0649

Diamantopoulos, A., and Siguaw, J. A. (2006). Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: A comparison and empirical illustration. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 263–282. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8551.2006.00500.x

Franke, G., and Sarstedt, M. (2018). Heuristics versus statistics in discriminant validity testing: a comparison of four procedures. Internet Research. https://doi.org/10.1108/IntR-12-2017-0515

Garg, P., and Joshi, R. (2018). Purchase intention of “Halal” brands in India: the mediating effect of attitude. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 9(3), 683–694. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-11-2017-0125

Green, S. B. (1991). How Many Subjects Does It Take To Do A Regression Analysis? Multivariate Behavioral Research, 26(3), 499–510. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr2603_7

Gudergan, S. P., Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Will, A. (2008). Confirmatory tetrad analysis in PLS path modeling. Journal of Business Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2008.01.012

Ha, J., and Jang, S. C. (Shawn). (2010). Effects of service quality and food quality: The moderating role of atmospherics in an ethnic restaurant segment. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29(3), 520–529. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.12.005

Hafaz, N. A., Jeevan, J., Salleh, N. H. M., Lee, T. T. H., and Ruslan, S. M. M. (2019). Willingness to Pay for Halal Transportation Cost: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge on the Theory of Planned Behavior. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology, 8(6S3), 479–488. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.F1089.0986S319

Hair, J. F., Risher, J. J., Sarstedt, M., and Ringle, C. M. (2018). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 00–00. https://doi.org/10.1108/ebr-11-2018-0203

Hair, J., Hollingsworth, C. L., Randolph, A. B., and Chong, A. Y. L. (2017). An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research. Industrial Management and Data Systems, 117(3), 442–458. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-04-2016-0130

Han, H., Back, K. J., and Barrett, B. (2009). Influencing factors on restaurant customers’ revisit intention: The roles of emotions and switching barriers. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28(4), 563–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2009.03.005

Han, H., Nguyen, H. N., Song, H., Lee, S., and Chua, B.-L. (2019). Impact of functional/cognitive and emotional advertisements on image and repurchase intention. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 28(4), 446–471. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2019.1531803

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0403-8

Hulland, J., Baumgartner, H., and Smith, K. M. (2017). Marketing survey research best practices: evidence and recommendations from a review of JAMS articles. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 46(1), 92–108. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-017-0532-y

Hwang, J., and Lyu, S. O. (2019). Relationships among green image, consumer attitudes, desire, and customer citizenship behavior in the airline industry. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. https://doi.org/10.1080/15568318.2019.1573280

Jeong, E. H., Jang, S. C., Day, J., and Ha, S. (2014). The impact of eco-friendly practices on green image and customer attitudes: An investigation in a café setting. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 41, 10–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2014.03.002

Kamalul Ariffin, S., Ismail, I., and Mohammad Shah, K. A. (2016). Religiosity moderates the relationship between ego-defensive function and attitude towards advertising. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 7(1), 15–36. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-11-2014-0074

Khan, G., and Khan, F. (2018). Ascertaining the “Halalness” of restaurants – scale development and validation. Journal of Islamic Marketing. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-04-2018-0067

Kim, S. B., and Kwon, K. J. (2018). Examining the relationships of image and attitude on visit intention to Korea among Tanzanian college students: The moderating effect of familiarity. Sustainability (Switzerland), 10(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/su10020360

Knight, A. J., Worosz, M. R., and Todd, E. C. D. (2007). Serving food safety: Consumer perceptions of food safety at restaurants. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19(6), 476–484. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110710775138

Kock, N. (2015). Common Method Bias in PLS-SEM. International Journal of E-Collaboration, 11(4), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.4018/ijec.2015100101

Lim, Y., and Weaver, P. A. (2014). Customer-based brand equity for a destination: The effect of destination image on preference for products associated with a destination brand. International Journal of Tourism Research, 16(3), 223–231. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.1920

Lockwood, A., and Pyun, K. (2019). How do customers respond to the hotel servicescape? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 82, 231–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2019.04.016

Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., and Podsakoff, N. P. (2011). Construct Measurement and Validation P Rocedures in Mis and B Ehavioral Research : Integrating New and Existing Techniques. MIS Quarterly, 35(2), 293–334.

Mehrabian, A., and Russell, J. A. (1974). An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge: The MIT Press.

Meng, B., and Choi, K. (2018). An investigation on customer revisit intention to theme restaurants. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 30(3), 1646–1662. https://doi.org/10.1108/ijchm-11-2016-0630

Namkung, Y., and Jang, S. C. (2008). Are highly satisfied restaurant customers really different? A quality perception perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20(2), 142–155. https://doi.org/10.1108/09596110810852131

Ngah, A. H., Ramayah, T., Ali, M. H., and Khan, M. I. (2019). Halal transportation adoption among pharmaceuticals and comestics manufacturers. Journal of Islamic Marketing, ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print). https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-10-2018-0193

Ngah, A. H., Thurasamy, R., Aziz, N. A., Ali, H., and Khan, M. I. (2019). Modelling the adoption of halal warehousing services among halal pharmaceutical and cosmetic manufacturers. In Journal of Sustainability Science and Management (Vol. 14).

Ngah, A. H., Zainuddin, Y., and Thurasamy, R. (2015). Barriers and enablers in adopting of Halal warehousing. Journal of Islamic Marketing, 6(3), 354–376. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-03-2014-0027

Ngah, A. H., Zainuddin, Y., and Thurasamy, R. (2017). Applying the TOE framework in the Halal warehouse adoption study. Journal of Islamic Accounting and Business Research, 8(2), 161–181. https://doi.org/10.1108/JIABR-04-2014-0014

Othman, R., Ahmad, Z. A., and Zailani, S. (2009). The effect of institutional pressures in the Malaysian halal food industry. International Business Management, Vol. 3, pp. 80–84.

Ouyang, Y., Behnke, C., Almanza, B., and Ghiselli, R. (2018). The Influence of Food Aromas on Restaurant Consumer Emotions, Perceptions, and Purchases. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 27(4), 405–423. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.1374225

Pu, B., Teah, M., and Phau, I. (2019). Hot Chili Peppers, Tears and Sweat: How Experiencing Sichuan Cuisine will Influence Intention to Visit City of Origin. Sustainability, 11(13), 3561. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11133561

Qin, H., and Prybutok, V. R. (2009). Service quality, customer satisfaction, and behavioral intentions in fast-food restaurants. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 1(1), 78–95. https://doi.org/10.1108/17566690910945886

Quintal, V. A., Thomas, B., and Phau, I. (2015). Incorporating the winescape into the theory of planned behaviour: Examining “new world” wineries. Tourism Management, 46, 596–609. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2014.08.013

Ramesh, K., Saha, R., Goswami, S., Sekar, and Dahiya, R. (2019). Consumer’s response to CSR activities: Mediating role of brand image and brand attitude. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(2), 377–387. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1689

Rhee, H., Yang, S., and Kim, K. (2016). Exploring the comparative salience of restaurant attributes: A conjoint analysis approach. Nternational Journal of Information Management, 36, 1360–1370. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0268401216301189

Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Becker, J. M. (2015). “Smart PLS 3.” Boenningstedt: SmartPLS GmbH. Retrieved from http://www.smartpls.com

Shmueli, G., Ray, S., Velasquez Estrada, J. M., and Chatla, S. B. (2016). The elephant in the room: Predictive performance of PLS models. Journal of Business Research.

Tebourbi, S., and Khemakhem, R. (2017). Service quality in retail market: effect on attitude, satisfaction and loyalty to the store brands. International Journal of Business Performance and Supply Chain Modelling, 9(3), 181.

Um, S., Chon, K., and Ro, Y. H. (2006). Antecedents of revisit intention. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1141–1158.

Venkatesh, V., Brown, S., and Hoehle, H. (2012). Understanding Technology Adoption in the Household Context : a Comparison of Seven. European Conference on Information Systems.

Vesci, M., and Botti, A. (2019). Festival quality, theory of planned behavior and revisiting intention: Evidence from local and small Italian culinary festivals. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 38, 5–15.

Wu, H. C., Li, M. Y., and Li, T. (2018). A Study of Experiential Quality, Experiential Value, Experiential Satisfaction, Theme Park Image, and Revisit Intention. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 42(1), 26–73.

Wu, P. C. S., Yeh, G. Y. Y., and Hsiao, C. R. (2011). The effect of store image and service quality on brand image and purchase intention for private label brands. Australasian Marketing Journal, 19(1), 30–39.

Yi, S., Zhao, J., and Joung, H. W. (DAVID). (2018). Influence of price and brand image on restaurant customers’ restaurant selection attribute. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 21(2), 200–217.

Full Text: pdf

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.