La riformulazione in inglese del discorso legale italiano come processo di ‘ELFentextualization’


This paper introduces a new model defined ELFentextualization, devised for the English reformulation of the Italian legal discourse in the field of Migration. It is meant as a pedagogical and practical tool that can help intercultural linguistic mediators increase their competence at the time of analysing and reproducing source texts for an audience of non-native English speakers. In particular, our model is adopted here for the retextualization into English as a ‘lingua franca’ (ELF) of a number of extracts from the ‘Bossi-Fini’ law and ‘Testo unico sull’immigrazione’, which indicate the actions that migrants have to follow to request residence document. After illustrating the theoretical grounds of the ELFentextualization process, this paper will examine the selected corpus of English retextualizations of Italian legal discourse. The comparison between the original and ‘ELFentextualized’ versions will exemplify that the latter are elaborated after an initial phase of ‘text analysis’, which is meant to infer the gist of the message. The essential pieces of information are then reconstructed by resorting to lexical and syntactic simplification, as well as to the macrorules for text summarization. Finally, this paper enquires into the initial phases of a reception study of the examined reformulations, which will help discuss the lingua-franca connotation of the English uses in the texts under examination.


DOI Code: 10.1285/i22390359v39p221

Keywords: English as a Lingua Franca; ELFentextualization; legal discourse; migration discourse; interlingual and intralingual reformulations.


Austin J.L. 1962, How to Do Things with Words, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Bogucki Ł. 2011, The Application of Action Research to Audiovisual Translation, in McLoughlin L.I., Biscio M. e Ní Mhainnín M.Á. (a cura di), Audiovisual Translation Subtitles and Subtitling: Theory and Practice, Peter Lang, Berna, pp. 7-18.

Campbell S. 2005, English Translation and Linguistic Hegemony in the Global Era, in Anderman G. e Rogers M. (a cura di), In and Out of English: For Better, for Worse?, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 27-38.

Chesterman A. 2000, A Causal Model for Translation Studies, in Olohan M. (a cura di), Intercultural Faultiness – Research Models in Translation Studies I – Textual and Cognitive Aspects, St. Jerome, Manchester, pp. 15-26.

Christiansen T. 2019, The Role of Affinity in Attitudes towards the English of Native and Non-native Speakers, in “Lingue e Linguaggi” 30, pp. 87-105.

Cronin M. 2013, Translation in the Digital Age, Routledge, New York.

Facchinetti R., Vettorel P., Poppi F., Franceschi V. e Caleffi P.-M. 2020, Overviewing Research on BELF Communication Strategies: From Professional Practice to ELT, “Lingue e Linguaggi” 38, pp. 181-198.

Franceschi V. 2017, Exploring Plurilingualism in Fan Fiction. ELF Users as Creative Writers, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Gile D. 1995, Basic Concepts and Models for the Interpreter and Translator Training, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia.

Gottlieb H. 2005, Multidimensional Translation: Semantics Turned Semiotics, in Gerzymisch-Arbogast H., e Nauert S. (a cura di), MuTra 2005 – Challenges of Multidimensional Translation: Conference Proceedings, pp. 33-61.

Gottlieb_Henrik.pdf (26.8.2020).

Grossman E. 2010, Why Translation Matters, Yale University Press, New Heaven, CT/Londra.

Guido M.G. 1999a, The Acting Reader: Schema/Text Interaction in the Dramatic Discourse of Poetry, Legas, New York/Ottawa/Toronto.

Guido M.G. 1999b, Processi di analisi e traduzione del discorso scientifico-settoriale inglese: Un modello psicopedagogico, Armando Editore, Roma.

Guido M.G. 2008, English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains, Peter Lang, Berna.

Guido M.G. 2012, The Acting Translator: Embodying Cultures in the Dubbing Translation of Sitcoms, Legas, New York/Ottawa/Toronto.

Guido M.G. 2018, English as a Lingua Franca in Migrants’ Trauma Narratives, Palgrave Macmillan, Londra.

Guido M.G., Errico L., Iaia P.L. e Amatulli C. 2016, ELF Narratives of Ancient and Modern ‘Odysseys’ across the Mediterranean Sea: An Experiential-Linguistic Approach to the Marketing of Responsible Tourism, in “Cultus” 9 [1], pp. 90-116.

Guido M.G., Iaia P.L. e Errico L. 2018, ELF-mediated Intercultural Communication between Migrants and Tourists in an Italian Project of Responsible Tourism: A Multimodal Ethnopoetic Approach to Modern and Classical Sea-voyage Narratives, in Guillén-Galve I. e Vázquez-Orta I. (a cura di), English as a Lingua Franca and Intercultural Communication. Implications and Applications in the Field of English Language Teaching, Peter Lang, Berna, pp. 97-123.

Hall S. 2006, Encoding/Decoding, in Durham M.G. e Kellner D.M. (a cura di), Media and Cultural Studies: Keyworks, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, pp. 163-173.

Halliday M.A.K. 2001, Towards a Theory of Good Translation, in Yallop C. e Steiner E. (a cura di), Beyond Content: Exploring Translation and Multilingual Texts, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlino, pp. 13-18.

Iaia P.L. 2015, The Dubbing Translation of Humorous Audiovisual Texts, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne.

Iaia P.L. 2016, Analysing English as a Lingua Franca in Video Games. Linguistic Features, Experiential and Functional Dimensions of Online and Scripted Interactions, Peter Lang, Berna.

Jakobson R. 2000, On Linguistic Aspects of Translation, in Venuti L. (a cura di), The Translation Studies Reader, Routledge, Londra.

Jenkins J. 2014, English as a Lingua Franca in the International University: The Politics of Academic English Language Policy, Routledge, Londra.

Kachru B.B. (a cura di) 1992, The Other Tongue: English across Cultures, University of Illinois Press, Chicago.

Kaur J. 2009, English as a Lingua Franca: Co-constructing Understanding, VDM Verlag, Saarbrücken.

Kay M. 1997, The Proper Place of Men and Machines in Language Translation, in “Machine Translation” 12 [1/2], pp. 3-23.

Mauranen A. 2007, Hybrid Voices: English as the Lingua Franca of Academics, in Fløttum K. (a cura di), Language and Discipline Perspectives on Academic Discourse, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, Newcastle upon Tyne, pp. 244-259.

Mauranen A. 2012, Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

McArthur T. 2001, World English and World Englishes: Trends, Tensions, Varieties and Standards, in “Language Teaching” 34 [1], pp. 1-20.

McCarthy C., Giardina M., Harewood S. e Park J.-K. 2003, Contesting Culture, Identity and Curriculum Dilemmas in the Age of Globalization, Postcolonialism, and Multiplicity, in “Harvard Educational Review” 73 [3], pp. 449-465.

Mendoza I. e Ponce N. 2009, Proposal for the Analysis of the Source Text in the Comprehension Phase of the Translation Process: Contextualization, and Analysis of Extra-Linguistic and Intra-Linguistic Aspects, in “Rédit” 2, pp. 128-150.

Munday J. 2000, Technology at the Service of the Translator? A Response to Mary Snell-Hornby, in Schaffner C. (a cura di), Translation in the Global Village, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 57-59.

Nord C. 1991, Text Analysis in Translation. Theory, Methodology, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-oriented Text Analysis, Rodopi, Amsterdam.

Nord C. 1997, A Functional Typology of Translations, in Trosborg A. (a cura di), In Text Typology and Translation, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, pp. 39-66.

Provenzano M. 2008, The EU Legal Discourse of Immigration. A Cross-cultural Cognitive Approach to Accessibility and Reformulation, FrancoAngeli, Milano.

Rogers M. 2005, Native versus Non-native Speaker Competence in German-English Translation: A Case Study, in Anderman G. e Rogers M. (a cura di), In and Out of English: For Better, for Worse?, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon, pp. 242-255.

Rudby R. e Saraceni M. 2006, An Interview with Suresh Canagarajah, in Rudby R. e Saraceni M. (a cura di), English in the World. Global Rules, Global Roles, Continuum, Londra, pp. 200-211.

Schmidt W. 2013, The Living Handbook of Narratology, http://wikis.sub.uni- (26.8.2020).

Seidlhofer B. 1995, Approaches to Summarization: Discourse Analysis and Language Education, Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen.

Seidlhofer B. 2004, Research Perspectives on Teaching English as a Lingua Franca, in “Annual Review of Applied Linguistics” 24, pp. 209-239.

Seidlhofer B. 2007, English as a Lingua franca and Communities of Practice, in Volke-Birke S. e Lippert J. (a cura di), Anglistentag 2006 Halle Proceedings, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, pp. 307-318.

Seidlhofer B. 2011, Understanding English as a Lingua Franca, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Taviano S. 2010, Translating English as a Lingua Franca, Le Monnier Università, Firenze.

Ulrych M. 2014, Traces of Mediation in Rewriting and Translation, EDUCatt, Milano.

Urban G. 1996, Entextualization, Replication and Power, in Silverstein M. e Urban G. (a cura di), Natural Histories of Discourse, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 21-44.

Valkova T. 2014, Translation Model, Translation Analysis, Translation Strategy: An Integrated Methodology, in “Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences” 154, pp. 301-304.

van Dijk T.A. 1980, Macrostructures. An Interdisciplinary Study of Global Structures in Discourse, Interaction, and Cognition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale.

van Leeuwen T. 2005, Introducing Social Semiotics, Routledge, Londra.

Venuti L. 1995, The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation, Routledge, Londra.

Venuti L. 2009, Translation, Intertextuality, Interpretation, in “Romance Studies” 27, pp. 157-173.

Wenger E. 1998, Communities of Practice, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Widdowson H.G. 1991, Types of Equivalence in Translation, in “Triangle” 10, pp. 153-165.

Widdowson H.G. 2003, Defining Issues in English Language Teaching, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Full Text: pdf


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.