Standard di Maritime English: Una base comune per l’efficacia della comunicazione a bordo


The aim of this study is to make a comparison between the regulatory framework and actual common practice concerning the teaching and use of Maritime English. This comparison is directed at understanding the variables and identifying the issues that lead to the divergence between the two. Therefore, by relying on a custom-designed survey, this work investigates the way in which these issues interlink with the Italian Maritime English Teaching system and delves deeper into the perception that seafarers have of this matter.



DOI Code: 10.1285/i22390359v39p27

Keywords: ESP; Maritime English; international standards; language certification; on board communication.


Alderson C. e Wall D. 1993, Does Washback Exist?, in “Applied Linguistics” 14. pp. 115-129.

Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty 2012, Safety and Shipping 1912-2012: From Titanic to Costa Concordia, Munich, AGCS.

Allianz Global Corporate and Specialty 2017, Safety and Shipping Review 2017: an annual review of trends and developments in shipping losses and safety, Munich, AGCS.

Baltic and International Maritime Council 2015, Manpower Report 2015, Londra, Marisec.

Björkroth P., John P. e Noble A. 2013, Making SMCP count!, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 25th International Maritime English Conference, Istanbul, Piri Reis University, pp. 136-149.

Blakey T. 1987, English for Maritime Studies, Oxford, Pergamon Press.

Bocanegra-Valle A. 2010a, Global Markets, Global Challenges: The position of Maritime English in today’s shipping industry, in Linde López A. e Crespo Jiménez R. (a cura di), Professional English in the European Context: the EHEA challenge, Berlino, Peter Lang, pp. 151-174.

Bocanegra-Valle A. 2010b, The Language of Seafaring: Standardized Conventions and Discursive Features in Speech Communications, in “International Journal of English Studies” 11 [1], pp. 35-53.

Bocanegra-Valle A. 2013, Maritime English, in Chapelle C.A. (a cura di), The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics, London, Blackwell Publishing, pp. 3570-3583.

Brenkner M., Möckel S. e Strohschneider S. 2014, Enhancing safety through generic competencies, in “Transnav International Journal of Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation” 8 [1], pp. 97-102.

Brooks B., John P. e Schriever U. 2017, Profiling maritime communication by non-native speakers: a quantitative comparison between the baseline and standard marine communication phraseology, in “English for Specific Purposes” 47, pp. 1-14.

Brown D. 2002, Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices, New York, Pearson.

Carrasco Cabrera M.J. 2010, Inglés técnico marítimo, Madrid, Paraninfo.

Cimmino A. 2018, Dizionarietto Inglese dei Termini Marinareschi e Tecnici Navali. (11.06.2018).

Cole C. e Trenkner P. 2008, The yardstick for Maritime English STCW assessment purposes, in IMLA (ed.), Proceedings of the 20th International Maritime English Conference, Shanghai, Shanghai Maritime University, pp. 163-173.

Cole C. e Trenkner P. 2012, Whither Maritime English?, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 24th International Maritime English Conference, Yangong, Myanmar Maritime University, pp. 3-17.

Cross S., Down D., Jeffrey G. e Mercer R. 2014, Mariner Perspectives: The Relation Between Multiple Choice Questions, English Language, and STCW Competency, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 26th International Maritime English Conference, Terschelling: Maritime Institute Willem Barentsz.

Crystal D. 2003, English as a Global Language, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.

Crystal D. 2005, La Rivoluzione delle Lingue, Bologna, Il Mulino.

Čulić-Viskota, A. e Kalebota S. 2013, Maritime English – What does it communicate?, in “Transactions on Maritime Science” 2, pp. 109-112.

Čulić-Viskota, A. e Mönnigmann B. 2017, Standardised English Language Proficiency Testing for Seafarers, in “Transactions on Maritime Science” 2, pp. 147-154.

Del Rosso P. 2014, Dictionary of Maritime Terms 4th Edition, Edinburgh, Witherby Seamanship.

Det Norske Veritas Group 2018, Annual Report 2017, Oslo, DNV.

Diaz Pérez J.M. 2002, IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases and teaching their use in the Vessel Traffic Services context, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Maritime Innovations and Research, Bilbao, Universidad del País Vasco, pp. 649-658.

Dževerdanović-Pejović M. 2013, Discourse of VHF communication at sea and the intercultural aspect, in “International Journal for Traffic and Transport Engineering” 3 [4], pp. 377-396.

Fairplay Daily News 2007, Pilotage at Heart of a Sensitive Regulatory Area. (29.05.2018).

Franceschi D. 2014, The Features of Maritime English Discourse, in “International Journal of English Linguistics” 4 [2], pp. 78-87.

Grech M., Horberry T. e Koester T. 2008, Human Factors in the Maritime Domain, Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Horck, I. 2005, Getting the Best from Multi-cultural Manning, Copenhagen, BIMCO.

International Civil Aviation Organization 2010, Doc 9835. Manual on the Implementation of ICAO Language Proficiency Requirements 2nd edition, Montréal, ICAO.

International Maritime Organization 1985, Standard Marine Navigational Vocabulary, Londra, IMO.

International Maritime Organization 2000, Model Course 3.12: Assessment, Examination and Certification of Seafarers, Londra, IMO.

International Maritime Organization 2002a, International Safety Management Code, Londra, IMO Library Services.

International Maritime Organization 2002b, Standard Marine Communication Phrases, Londra, IMO.

International Maritime Organization 2005a, Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, Londra, Lloyd's Register.

International Maritime Organization 2005b, International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, Londra, IMO.

International Maritime Organization, 2005c, Safety of Life at Sea Convention, Londra, Lloyd's Register.

International Maritime Organization 2009, Model Course 3.17: Maritime English, Londra, International Shipping Federation.

Istituto Idrografico della Marina 2006, Manuale dell’ufficiale di rotta, Genova, IIMM.

John P., Toncheva S. e Zlateva D. 2017, Developing an assessment methodology for a universal Maritime English proficiency test for deck officers, in IMLA (a cura di), Procedings of the IAMU 18th Annual General Assembly, Varna, Vaptsarov Naval Academy, pp. 150-159.

Kahveci E. e Sampson H. 2001, Findings from the shipboard based study of mixed nationality crews, in SIRC (a cura di), Proceedings of SIRC’s Second Symposium, Cardiff, Cardiff University, pp. 39-60.

Kalogjera, D. e Pritchard B. 1999, On some features of conversation in Maritime VHF communication, in Cotterill J., Coulthard M. e Rock F. (a cura di), Dialogue Analysis: working with dialogue, Tubingen, Max Niemeyer Verlag.

Kourieois S. 2015, Investigating Maritime Students’ Academic and Professional Language Skills: a needs analysis, in “English for Specific Purposes World” 47. (29.05.2018).

Logie C., Vivers E. e Nisbet A. 1997, Marlins English for Seafarers: Study Pack 1, Glasgow, Marlins.

Logie C., Vivers E. e Nisbet A. 1998, Marlins English for Seafarers: Study Pack 2, Glasgow, Marlins.

Marine Accident Investigation Branch 2009, Investigation Report Maersk Kendal. (28.05.2018).

Maritime and Coastguard Agency 2010, The Human Element: a guide to human behaviour in the shipping industry, Londra, TSO.

Ministero dei Trasporti 1986, Direzione Generale per la Navigazione e il Trasporto Marittimo e Interno, Roma, Ministero dei Trasporti.

Molland A. F. 2008, The Maritime Engineering Reference Book. A Guide to Ship Design, Construction and Operation, Oxford, Elsevier.

Murrel S. 2008, Proposal to create an international examination in the IMO SMCP Phrases as the first of a series of international Maritime English examinations, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of 20th International Maritime English Conference, Shanghai, Shanghai Maritime University, pp. 191-195.

National Transportation Safety Board 2009, M/V Cosco Busan Bridge Allision. (29.05.2018).

Noble A. 2012, Make the Most of Diversity, in “Telegraph” 2, p. 26.

Noble A. 2015, The IMO SMCP 15 years on: current perceptions and realistic recommendations, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 27th International Maritime English Conference, Johor Bahru, NMIT, pp. 127-144.

Pritchard B. 2002, On some issues in the standardisation of Maritime English – pedagogical implications, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the Seminar on Maritime English, Istanbul, Istanbul Technical University & JICA, pp. 2-16.

Pritchard B. 2003, Maritime English syllabus for the modern seafarer: comprehensive or safety-related courses?, in “WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs” 2 [2], pp. 149-166.

Qinchao W. 1992, Practical English Conversation for Mariners, Dalian, Dalian Maritime University.

Reguzzoni M. 2012, Building and using field-specific corpora to enhance ESP teaching, in IATEFL (a cura di), Proceedings of the 46th Annual International IATEFL Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow. (01.05.2018).

Schriever U. 2008, Maritime Communication in an International and lntercultural Discourse, Hobart, University of Tasmania.

Seafarers International Research Centre 1999, MarCom: the impact of multicultural and multilingual crews on MARitime COMmunication, Cardiff, SIRC.

Seatalk 2015, SeaTALK survey: executive summary of the report. (29.03.2018).

Shohamy, E. 1998, Critical language testing and beyond, “Studies in Educational Evaluation” 24 [4], pp. 331-345.

Short V. 2006, Maritime English: Valuing a common language, in “Nautical Briefing - Supplement to Seaways the Journal of the Nautical Institute” 10, pp. 1-12.

Sullivan E. 1999, Maritime Encyclopaedic Dictionary, London, LLP Reference Publishing.

Tominac Coslovich S. 2011, Time to Engineer New Standards, in “Telegraph” 10, p. 26.

Trenkner P. 1990, Englisch för Schiffsoffiziere, Warnemünde, Ingenieurhochschule für Seefahrt.

Trenkner P. 2000. Maritime English: an attempt to an imperfect definition, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 2nd IMLA

Workshop on Maritime English, Dalian, Dalian Maritime University, pp. 1-8.

Trenkner P. 2005. The IMO SMCP: Refreshing memories to refresh motivation, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 17th International Maritime English Conference, Marsiglia, Aix-Marseille Université, pp. 222-237.

Trenkner P. 2010, The Need to Mind your Language!, in “Telegraph” 2, p. 27.

Van Kluijven P. 2009, Speaking up for seafarers, in “Telegraph” 12, p. 31.

Van Leunen W. 2011, The Maritime Simulator: an instrument for MET assessment?, in IMLA (a cura di), Proceedings of the 23rd International Maritime English Conference, Costanta, Editura Nautica, pp.61-71.

Vecchia Formisano A. 2014, Maritime English: appendice al Captain’s Handbook, Torre del Greco, Edizioni Duemme.

Velikova G. 2010, Maritime English Testing: current state of affairs, Varna, Vaptsarov Naval Academy. (17.03.2018).

Weeks F. 1986, Wavelength: how to use the IMCO standard marine navigational vocabulary, Oxford, Pergamon Press.

Weeks F. 1988, Seaspeak Training Manual: essential English for International Maritime Use, Oxford, Pergamon Press.

Full Text: pdf


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 3.0 Italia License.